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A Comparative Perspective on Poverty Reduction in Brazil, China, and India

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  • Martin Ravallion

Abstract

Brazil, China, and India have seen falling poverty in their reform periods, but to varying degrees and for different reasons. History left China with favorable initial conditions for rapid poverty reduction through market-led economic growth; at the outset of the reform process there were many distortions to be removed and a relatively low inequality of access to the opportunities so created, though inequality has risen markedly since. By concentrating such opportunities in the hands of the better off, prior inequalities in various dimensions handicapped poverty reduction in both Brazil and India. Brazil's recent success in complementing market-oriented reforms with progressive social policies has helped it achieve a higher proportionate rate of poverty reduction than India, although Brazil has been less successful in terms of economic growth. In the wake of its steep rise in inequality, China might learn from Brazil's success with such policies. India needs to do more to assure that poor people are able to participate in both the country's growth process and its social policies; here there are lessons from both China and Brazil. All three countries have learned how important macroeconomic stability is to poverty reduction. Copyright 2011, Oxford University Press.

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  • Martin Ravallion, 2011. "A Comparative Perspective on Poverty Reduction in Brazil, China, and India," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 26(1), pages 71-104, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:wbrobs:v:26:y:2011:i:1:p:71-104
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    Cited by:

    1. Deininger, Klaus & Jin, Songqing & Xia, Fang & Huang, Jikun, 2014. "Moving Off the Farm: Land Institutions to Facilitate Structural Transformation and Agricultural Productivity Growth in China," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 505-520.
    2. Roberto González & Hector Sala, 2015. "The Frisch Elasticity in the Mercosur Countries: A Pseudo-Panel Approach," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 33(1), pages 107-131, January.
    3. Dang,Hai-Anh H. & Lanjouw,Peter F. & Dang,Hai-Anh H. & Lanjouw,Peter F., 2015. "Toward a new definition of shared prosperity: a dynamic perspective from three countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7294, The World Bank.
    4. Aizenman, Joshua & Lee, Minsoo & Park, Donghyun, 2012. "The Relationship between Structural Change and Inequality: A Conceptual Overview with Special Reference to Developing Asia," ADBI Working Papers 396, Asian Development Bank Institute.
    5. Laura Policardo & Lionello F. Punzo & Edgar J. Sánchez Carrera, 2016. "Brazil and China: Two Routes of Economic Development?," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(3), pages 651-669, August.
    6. Gentilini, Ugo & Omamo, Steven Were, 2011. "Social protection 2.0: Exploring issues, evidence and debates in a globalizing world," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 329-340, June.
    7. Martha Hanae Hiromoto, 2014. "Uma Análise Do Efeito Dos Gastos Dosgovernos Sobre A Pobreza No Brasil – 1987 A 2009," Anais do XL Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 40th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 208, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pós-Graduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].

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