IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Indicators for science and technology policy in Pakistan: Entering the science, technology and innovation paradigm


  • Arabella Bhutto
  • Pir Irfanullah Rashdi
  • Qazi Moinuddin Abro


This article discusses the current trends in science and technology (S&T) indicators in Pakistan which rely on the S&T/R&D expenditures, research organisations/institutes, qualified personnel, and publications and patents granted. It then identifies the need to integrate the innovation indicators in order to enable better evaluation and development of S&T policies. New innovation indicators are proposed, based on the conceptual learning from the OECD Blue Sky Forum held in 2006. This forum considered global interest in the direction of integrating S&T and innovation indicators and evidence-based policy development. The learning achieved from this forum is applied in the context of Pakistan to discuss the utility of three major innovation indicators: establishment of linkages and networks; diffusion of innovative knowledge and technology; and management of innovative knowledge inside Pakistan. Copyright The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:, Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Arabella Bhutto & Pir Irfanullah Rashdi & Qazi Moinuddin Abro, 2012. "Indicators for science and technology policy in Pakistan: Entering the science, technology and innovation paradigm," Science and Public Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 39(1), pages 1-12, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:scippl:v:39:y:2012:i:1:p:1-12

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Edler, Jakob & Georghiou, Luke, 2007. "Public procurement and innovation--Resurrecting the demand side," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 949-963, September.
    2. Theodoros Papaioannou & Howard Rush & John Bessant, 2006. "Benchmarking as a policy-making tool: From the private to the public sector," Science and Public Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 33(2), pages 91-102, March.
    3. Mytelka, Lynn K. & Smith, Keith, 2002. "Policy learning and innovation theory: an interactive and co-evolving process," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(8-9), pages 1467-1479, December.
    4. Cohendet, Patrick & Steinmueller, W Edward, 2000. "The Codification of Knowledge: A Conceptual and Empirical Exploration," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 9(2), pages 195-209, June.
    5. Cowan, Robin & David, Paul A & Foray, Dominique, 2000. "The Explicit Economics of Knowledge Codification and Tacitness," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 9(2), pages 211-253, June.
    6. Benezech, Daniele & Lambert, Gilles & Lanoux, Blandine & Lerch, Christophe & Loos-Baroin, Jocelyne, 2001. "Completion of knowledge codification: an illustration through the ISO 9000 standards implementation process," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(9), pages 1395-1407, December.
    7. Cohendet, Patrick & Meyer-Krahmer, Frieder, 2001. "The theoretical and policy implications of knowledge codification," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(9), pages 1563-1591, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Gogodze, Joseph, 2013. "Composite indicator ECAICI and positioning of Georgia’s innovative capacities in Europe-Central Asia Region," MPRA Paper 50892, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Gogodze, Joseph, 2013. "Composite indicator for regional innovative systems of the countries with developing and transitional economy," MPRA Paper 43911, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:oup:scippl:v:39:y:2012:i:1:p:1-12. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Oxford University Press) or (Christopher F. Baum). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.