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Indicators for science and technology policy in Pakistan: Entering the science, technology and innovation paradigm

  • Arabella Bhutto
  • Pir Irfanullah Rashdi
  • Qazi Moinuddin Abro
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    This article discusses the current trends in science and technology (S&T) indicators in Pakistan which rely on the S&T/R&D expenditures, research organisations/institutes, qualified personnel, and publications and patents granted. It then identifies the need to integrate the innovation indicators in order to enable better evaluation and development of S&T policies. New innovation indicators are proposed, based on the conceptual learning from the OECD Blue Sky Forum held in 2006. This forum considered global interest in the direction of integrating S&T and innovation indicators and evidence-based policy development. The learning achieved from this forum is applied in the context of Pakistan to discuss the utility of three major innovation indicators: establishment of linkages and networks; diffusion of innovative knowledge and technology; and management of innovative knowledge inside Pakistan. Copyright The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:, Oxford University Press.

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    Article provided by Oxford University Press in its journal Science and Public Policy.

    Volume (Year): 39 (2012)
    Issue (Month): 1 (January)
    Pages: 1-12

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    Handle: RePEc:oup:scippl:v:39:y:2012:i:1:p:1-12
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