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Indicators for science and technology policy in Pakistan: Entering the science, technology and innovation paradigm


  • Arabella Bhutto
  • Pir Irfanullah Rashdi
  • Qazi Moinuddin Abro


This article discusses the current trends in science and technology (S&T) indicators in Pakistan which rely on the S&T/R&D expenditures, research organisations/institutes, qualified personnel, and publications and patents granted. It then identifies the need to integrate the innovation indicators in order to enable better evaluation and development of S&T policies. New innovation indicators are proposed, based on the conceptual learning from the OECD Blue Sky Forum held in 2006. This forum considered global interest in the direction of integrating S&T and innovation indicators and evidence-based policy development. The learning achieved from this forum is applied in the context of Pakistan to discuss the utility of three major innovation indicators: establishment of linkages and networks; diffusion of innovative knowledge and technology; and management of innovative knowledge inside Pakistan. Copyright The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:, Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Arabella Bhutto & Pir Irfanullah Rashdi & Qazi Moinuddin Abro, 2012. "Indicators for science and technology policy in Pakistan: Entering the science, technology and innovation paradigm," Science and Public Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 39(1), pages 1-12, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:scippl:v:39:y:2012:i:1:p:1-12

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    Cited by:

    1. Gogodze, Joseph, 2013. "Composite indicator ECAICI and positioning of Georgia’s innovative capacities in Europe-Central Asia Region," MPRA Paper 50892, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Gogodze, Joseph, 2013. "Composite indicator for regional innovative systems of the countries with developing and transitional economy," MPRA Paper 43911, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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