Before Bayh--Dole: public research funding, patents, and pharmaceutical innovation (1945--1965)
What role did patents and exclusive licenses play as an incentive for research collaborations between publicly funded scientists and pharmaceutical firms before Bayh-Dole? Based on a study of NIH's patent policies and practices, the paper argues that patents played no role in supporting interactions between NIH grantees and pharmaceutical firms until 1962. The latter's growing demand for exclusive licenses during the 1960s was a strategic response to the rise in public funding of biomedical research, and the regulatory reforms introduced in 1962. Copyright 2011 The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Associazione ICC. All rights reserved., Oxford University Press.
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Volume (Year): 20 (2011)
Issue (Month): 3 (June)
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