IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Models of Research and Development Financing in the European Union: A Cluster Analysis


  • Kristina Stefanova

    (University of National and World Economy, Sofia, Bulgaria)


The paper aims to identify the different models of financing the expenditure on research and development in the European Union and define their characteristics through the application of the method of cluster analysis. The study shows the existence of four models within the EU, which are characterised by different ratios of R&D funding sources and have a specific geographical profile. Despite the differences, the private or public sector is defined as the funding source with the largest relative share in all models. The analysis shows that the model with the highest share of private sector funding provides the highest R&D expenditure as a percentage of GDP.

Suggested Citation

  • Kristina Stefanova, 2021. "Models of Research and Development Financing in the European Union: A Cluster Analysis," Nauchni trudove, University of National and World Economy, Sofia, Bulgaria, issue 5, pages 173–187-1, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:nwe:natrud:y:2021:i:5:p:173-187

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    More about this item


    research and development; financing R&D; innovations; European Union; cluster analysis;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • O30 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - General
    • F00 - International Economics - - General - - - General
    • C38 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Classification Methdos; Cluster Analysis; Principal Components; Factor Analysis


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nwe:natrud:y:2021:i:5:p:173-187. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no bibliographic references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Vanya Lazarova (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.