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Patterns of knowledge flow from industrialized to Latin American and Asian countries in the pharmaceutical industry: a patent citation analysis


  • Georgina Alenka Guzmán Chávez

    () (Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana,)

  • Hortensia Gómez Víquez

    (Instituto Politécnico Nacional)


This paper examines the patterns of knowledge flow from European Union countries, Japan and the United States to a selection of emerging countries from Latin America and Asia in the pharmaceutical industry, using patent citation as an indicator. A knowledge diffusion model was estimated with data based on USPTO patents granted to resident and non-resident holders in this technological field. Technological proximity of Latin Ame¬rican and Asian countries vis-à-vis the United States was found to be lower due to the fact that the quantity of citable patents is much greater than that coming from the Euro¬pean Union and Japan. Even though geographically Mexico is the closest country to the United States, there is not necessarily greater technological closeness. Furthermore, there are several reasons why there is technological proximity between Asian and industriali¬zed countries, particularly from the European Union and Japan. One reason is the direct foreign investment of industrialized countries in emerging economies, technology transfer and their respective externalities.

Suggested Citation

  • Georgina Alenka Guzmán Chávez & Hortensia Gómez Víquez, 2015. "Patterns of knowledge flow from industrialized to Latin American and Asian countries in the pharmaceutical industry: a patent citation analysis," Contaduría y Administración, Accounting and Management, vol. 60(5), pages 31-56, Octubre-D.
  • Handle: RePEc:nax:conyad:v:60:y:2015:i:5:p:31-56

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