IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/kap/jrefec/v20y2000i2p91-116.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Debt, Agency, and Management Contracts in REITs: The External Advisor Puzzle

Author

Listed:
  • Capozza, Dennis R
  • Seguin, Paul J

Abstract

This study investigates why externally advised real estate investment trusts (REITs) underperform their internally managed counterparts. Consistent with previous studies, we find that REITs managed by external advisors underperform internally managed ones by over 7 percent per year. Property-level cash-flow yields are similar between the two managerial forms, but corporate-level expenses and especially interest expenses are responsible for lower levels of cash available to shareholders in externally advised REITs. We document that the higher-interest expenses are due to both higher levels of debt and to higher debt yields for externally advised REITs. We posit that compensating managers based on either assets under management or on property-level cash flows creates incentives for managers to increase the asset base by issuing debt even if the interest costs are unfavorable. Copyright 2000 by Kluwer Academic Publishers

Suggested Citation

  • Capozza, Dennis R & Seguin, Paul J, 2000. "Debt, Agency, and Management Contracts in REITs: The External Advisor Puzzle," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 91-116, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:jrefec:v:20:y:2000:i:2:p:91-116
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://journals.kluweronline.com/issn/0895-5638/contents
    File Function: link to full text
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Kaul, Gautam, 1990. "Monetary Regimes and the Relation between Stock Returns and Inflationary Expectations," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 25(03), pages 307-321, September.
    2. Ling, David C & Naranjo, Andy, 1997. "Economic Risk Factors and Commercial Real Estate Returns," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 14(3), pages 283-307, May.
    3. Nelson, Charles R, 1976. "Inflation and Rates of Return on Common Stocks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 31(2), pages 471-483, May.
    4. Ely, David P. & Robinson, Kenneth J., 1997. "Are stocks a hedge against inflation? International evidence using a long-run approach," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 141-167, February.
    5. Patric H. Hendershott & Bryan D. MacGregor, 2005. "Investor Rationality: An Analysis of NCREIF Commercial Property Data," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 27(4), pages 445-475.
    6. Darrat, Ali F & Glascock, John L, 1989. "Real Estate Returns, Money and Fiscal Deficits: Is the Real Estate Market Efficient?," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 2(3), pages 197-208, September.
    7. Bakshi, Gurdip S & Chen, Zhiwu, 1996. "Inflation, Asset Prices, and the Term Structure of Interest Rates in Monetary Economies," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 9(1), pages 241-275.
    8. Kiseok Lee, 1999. "Unexpected inflation, inflation uncertainty, and stock returns," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(4), pages 315-328.
    9. Firth, Michael, 1979. "The Relationship between Stock Market Returns and Rates of Inflation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 34(3), pages 743-749, June.
    10. Su-Jane Chen & Chengho Hsieh & Timothy W. Vines & Shur-Nuaan Chiou, 1998. "Macroeconomic Variables, Firm-Specific Variables and Returns to REITs," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 16(3), pages 269-278.
    11. Boudoukh, Jacob & Richardson, Matthew & Whitelaw, Robert F, 1994. " Industry Returns and the Fisher Effect," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(5), pages 1595-1615, December.
    12. Kaul, Gautam & Seyhun, H Nejat, 1990. " Relative Price Variability, Real Shocks, and the Stock Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(2), pages 479-496, June.
    13. Charles H. Wurtzebach & Glenn R. Mueller & Donna Machi, 1991. "The Impact of Inflation and Vacancy on Real Estate Returns," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 6(2), pages 153-168.
    14. VanderHoff, James & VanderHoff, Mary, 1986. "Inflation and stock returns: An industry analysis," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 341-352, December.
    15. Glascock, John L & Lu, Chiuling & So, Raymond W, 2002. "REIT Returns and Inflation: Perverse or Reverse Causality Effects?," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 301-317, May.
    16. Hoesli, Martin & MacGregor, Bryan D. & Matysiak, George & Nanthakumaran, Nanda, 1997. "The Short-Term Inflation-Hedging Characteristics of U.K. Real Estate," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 15(1), pages 27-57, July.
    17. Arjun Chatrath & Youguo Liang, 1998. "REITs and Inflation: A Long-Run Perspective," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 16(3), pages 311-326.
    18. Schwert, G William, 1981. "The Adjustment of Stock Prices to Information about Inflation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 36(1), pages 15-29, March.
    19. Lee, Bong-Soo, 1992. " Causal Relations among Stock Returns, Interest Rates, Real Activity, and Inflation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(4), pages 1591-1603, September.
    20. Fama, Eugene F, 1981. "Stock Returns, Real Activity, Inflation, and Money," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(4), pages 545-565, September.
    21. Mike Miles & Tom Mc Cue, 1982. "Historic Returns and Institutional Real Estate Portfolios," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 10(2), pages 184-199.
    22. Crocker H. Liu & David J. Hartzell & Martin E. Hoesli, 1997. "International Evidence on Real Estate Securities as an Inflation Hedge," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 25(2), pages 193-221.
    23. Lee, Bong-Soo, 1989. "Solving, estimating, and testing a nonlinear stochastic equilibrium model, with an example of the asset returns and inflation relationship," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 499-531, October.
    24. Tsong-Yue Lai & Ko Wang, 1998. "Appraisal Smoothing: The Other Side of the Story," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 26(3), pages 511-535.
    25. Fama, Eugene F. & Schwert, G. William, 1977. "Asset returns and inflation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 115-146, November.
    26. Bodie, Zvi, 1976. "Common Stocks as a Hedge against Inflation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 31(2), pages 459-470, May.
    27. Danthine, Jean-Pierre & Donaldson, John B, 1986. "Inflation and Asset Prices in an Exchange Economy," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(3), pages 585-605, May.
    28. W. B. Brueggeman & A. H. Chen & T. G. Thihodeau, 1984. "Real Estate Investment Funds: Performance and Portfolio Considerations," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 12(3), pages 333-354.
    29. Marshall, David A, 1992. " Inflation and Asset Returns in a Monetary Economy," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(4), pages 1315-1342, September.
    30. Hess, Patrick J & Lee, Bong-Soo, 1999. "Stock Returns and Inflation with Supply and Demand Disturbances," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 12(5), pages 1203-1218.
    31. David C. Ling & Andy Naranjo, 1999. "The Integration of Commercial Real Estate Markets and Stock Markets," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 27(3), pages 483-515.
    32. Lintner, John, 1975. "Inflation and Security Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 30(2), pages 259-280, May.
    33. Balduzzi, Pierluigi, 1995. "Stock returns, inflation, and the 'proxy hypothesis': A new look at the data," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 47-53, April.
    34. K.C. Chen & Daniel D. Tzang, 1988. "Interest-Rate Sensitivity of Real Estate Investment Trusts," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 3(3), pages 13-22.
    35. Sheridan Titman & Arthur Warga, 1986. "Risk and the Performance of Real Estate Investment Trusts: A Multiple Index Approach," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 14(3), pages 414-431.
    36. Fama, Eugene F. & Gibbons, Michael R., 1984. "A comparison of inflation forecasts," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 327-348, May.
    37. Larsen, Alan B & McQueen, Grant R, 1995. "REITs, Real Estate, and Inflation: Lessons from the Gold Market," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 10(3), pages 285-297, May.
    38. K. C. Chan & Patric H. Hendershott & Anthony B. Sanders, 1990. "Risk and Return on Real Estate: Evidence from Equity REITs," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 18(4), pages 431-452.
    39. David Hartzell & John S. Hekman & Mike E. Miles, 1987. "Real Estate Returns and Inflation," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 15(1), pages 617-637.
    40. Eugene A. Pilotte, 2003. "Capital Gains, Dividend Yields, and Expected Inflation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(1), pages 447-466, February.
    41. Jaffe, Jeffrey F & Mandelker, Gershon, 1976. "The "Fisher Effect" for Risky Assets: An Empirical Investigation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 31(2), pages 447-458, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Hong Wang & Yining Sun & Yin Chen, 2009. "Special considerations for designing pilot REITs in China," Journal of Property Investment & Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 27(2), pages 140-161, March.
    2. Jay C. Hartzell & Jarl G. Kallberg & Crocker H. Liu, 2008. "The Role of Corporate Governance in Initial Public Offerings: Evidence from Real Estate Investment Trusts," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 51(3), pages 539-562, August.
    3. Han, Bing, 2004. "Insider Ownership and Corporate Value: Evidences from Real Estate Investment Trust," Working Paper Series 2004-1, Ohio State University, Charles A. Dice Center for Research in Financial Economics.
    4. Pierpaolo Pattitoni & Barbara Petracci & Massimo Spisni, 2011. "Fee Structure, Financing, and Investment Decisions: The Case of REITs," Working Paper series 30_11, Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis.
    5. Hua Sun, 2010. "A Theory on REIT’s Advisor Choice and the Optimal Compensation Mechanism," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 40(4), pages 387-411, May.
    6. Emanuela Giacomini & David Ling & Andy Naranjo, 2015. "Leverage and Returns: A Cross-Country Analysis of Public Real Estate Markets," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 51(2), pages 125-159, August.
    7. repec:kap:jrefec:v:55:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s11146-016-9577-9 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Dong Chen & Yanmin Gao & Mayank Kaul & Charles Ka Yui Leung & Desmond Tsang, 2016. "The Role of Sponsors and External Management on the Capital Structure of Asian-Pacific REITs: The Case of Australia, Japan, and Singapore," International Real Estate Review, Asian Real Estate Society, vol. 19(2), pages 197-221.
    9. Hsuan-Chi Chen & Robert Fok & Chiuling Lu, 2011. "An Analysis of Lockups in REIT IPOs," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 43(3), pages 359-384, October.
    10. Patrick Lecomte & Joseph Ooi, 2013. "Corporate Governance and Performance of Externally Managed Singapore Reits," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 46(4), pages 664-684, May.
    11. Randy Anderson & Justin Benefield & Matthew Hurst, 2015. "Property-type diversification and REIT performance: an analysis of operating performance and abnormal returns," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer;Academy of Economics and Finance, vol. 39(1), pages 48-74, January.
    12. Radheshyam Gopinath, 2012. "Understanding the determinants of firm growth in young REITs," ERES eres2012_205, European Real Estate Society (ERES).
    13. George Cashman & David Harrison & Michael Seiler, 2014. "Advisor Choice in Asia-Pacific Property Markets," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 48(2), pages 271-298, February.
    14. William Hardin & Michael Highfield & Matthew Hill & G. Kelly, 2009. "The Determinants of REIT Cash Holdings," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 39-57, July.
    15. Pin-te Lin & Franz Fuerst, 2014. "The integration of direct real estate and stock markets in Asia," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(12), pages 1323-1334, April.
    16. repec:kap:jrefec:v:54:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s11146-016-9575-y is not listed on IDEAS
    17. repec:eee:quaeco:v:66:y:2017:i:c:p:70-99 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. David H. Downs & Joseph T. L. Ooi & Woei-Chyuan Wong & S. E. Ong, 2016. "Related Party Transactions and Firm Value: Evidence from Property Markets in Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 52(4), pages 408-427, May.
    19. repec:kap:jrefec:v:55:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1007_s11146-016-9550-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. Chinmoy Ghosh & C. Sirmans, 2005. "On REIT CEO Compensation: Does Board Structure Matter?," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 30(4), pages 397-428, June.
    21. Nicolas Kohl & Wolfgang Schaefers, 2012. "Corporate Governance and Market Valuation of Publicly Traded Real Estate Companies: Evidence from Europe," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 44(3), pages 362-393, April.
    22. Brent W. Ambrose & Peter Linneman, 2001. "Reit Organizational Structure and Operating Characteristics," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 21(3), pages 141-162.
    23. Stephen M. Miller & Thomas M. Springer, 2007. "Cost Improvements, Returns to Scale, and Cost Inefficiencies for Real Estate Investment Trusts," Working papers 2007-05, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:jrefec:v:20:y:2000:i:2:p:91-116. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Rebekah McClure). General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.