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Appearances Can Be Deceiving: Lessons Learned Re-Implementing Axelrod's 'Evolutionary Approach to Norms'

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Abstract

In this paper we try to replicate the simulation results reported by Axelrod (1986) in an influential paper on the evolution of social norms. Our study shows that Axelrod's results are not as reliable as one would desire. We can obtain the opposite results by running the model for longer, by slightly modifying some of the parameters, or by changing some arbitrary assumptions in the model. This re-implementation exercise illustrates the importance of running stochastic simulations several times for many periods, exploring the parameter space adequately, complementing simulation with analytical work, and being aware of the scope of our simulation models.

Suggested Citation

  • José Manuel Galán & Luis R. Izquierdo, 2005. "Appearances Can Be Deceiving: Lessons Learned Re-Implementing Axelrod's 'Evolutionary Approach to Norms'," Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, vol. 8(3), pages 1-2.
  • Handle: RePEc:jas:jasssj:2004-54-2
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    Cited by:

    1. Uri Wilensky & William Rand, 2007. "Making Models Match: Replicating an Agent-Based Model," Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, vol. 10(4), pages 1-2.
    2. Claudio J. Tessone & Angel Sanchez & Frank Schweitzer, "undated". "Diversity-induced resonance in the response to social norms," Working Papers ETH-RC-12-017, ETH Zurich, Chair of Systems Design.
    3. José Manuel Galán & Luis R. Izquierdo & Segismundo S. Izquierdo & José Ignacio Santos & Ricardo del Olmo & Adolfo López-Paredes & Bruce Edmonds, 2009. "Errors and Artefacts in Agent-Based Modelling," Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, vol. 12(1), pages 1-1.
    4. J. Gary Polhill & Dawn C. Parker & Daniel Brown & Volker Grimm, 2008. "Using the ODD Protocol for Describing Three Agent-Based Social Simulation Models of Land-Use Change," Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, vol. 11(2), pages 1-3.
    5. Yamamoto, Hitoshi & Okada, Isamu, 2016. "How to keep punishment to maintain cooperation: Introducing social vaccine," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 443(C), pages 526-536.
    6. Luis R. Izquierdo & Segismundo S. Izquierdo & José Manuel Galán & José Ignacio Santos, 2009. "Techniques to Understand Computer Simulations: Markov Chain Analysis," Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, vol. 12(1), pages 1-6.
    7. J. Gary Polhill & Bruce Edmonds, 2007. "Open Access for Social Simulation," Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, vol. 10(3), pages 1-10.
    8. Martin Neumann, 2008. "Homo Socionicus: a Case Study of Simulation Models of Norms," Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, vol. 11(4), pages 1-6.
    9. Luis R. Izquierdo & J. Gary Polhill, 2006. "Is Your Model Susceptible to Floating-Point Errors?," Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, vol. 9(4), pages 1-4.
    10. J. Gary Polhill & Edoardo Pignotti & Nicholas M. Gotts & Pete Edwards & Alun Preece, 2007. "A Semantic Grid Service for Experimentation with an Agent-Based Model of Land-Use Change," Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, vol. 10(2), pages 1-2.
    11. Segismundo S. Izquierdo & Luis R. Izquierdo & Nicholas M. Gotts, 2008. "Reinforcement Learning Dynamics in Social Dilemmas," Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, vol. 11(2), pages 1-1.
    12. Bruce Edmonds, 2010. "Bootstrapping Knowledge About Social Phenomena Using Simulation Models," Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, vol. 13(1), pages 1-8.

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