IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

Game Theory and Empirical Generalizations Concerning Competitive Promotions

Listed author(s):
  • Ram C. Rao

    (The University of Texas at Dallas)

  • Ramesh V. Arjunji

    (Yale University)

  • B. P. S. Murthi

    (The University of Texas at Dallas)

Registered author(s):

    This paper offers the generalization that competitive promotions are mixed strategies. First an empirical regularity is established that promotions are independent across competitors. This regularity is then elaborated on in the context of a promotion game. The promotion game is linked to observable outcomes, and a classification of possible situations is developed. In particular, the classification includes the prisoners' dilemma, battle of the sexes, and marketing models of promotion competition. The evidence for the generalization comes from a variety of product markets, spanning trade promotions, retail price reductions, and retail promotions such as advertised specials. The product markets include coffee, baby diapers, toilet tissue, saltines, dishwashing fluid, ketchup, and detergents, among others. The data in some cases were from cooperating grocery chains and in others from IRI scanner panels. The evidence from extant research and from new analyses is presented. Each situation is identified as belonging to one or another element of the classification. Based on the entirety of the evidence, there is strong support for the proposition that competitive promotions are mixed strategies. A second generalization, based on more limited data, is that the depth of promotion has a bimodal distribution. Implications of the generalizations both for managerial practice and future research are discussed.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Article provided by INFORMS in its journal Marketing Science.

    Volume (Year): 14 (1995)
    Issue (Month): 3_supplement ()
    Pages: 89-100

    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:inm:ormksc:v:14:y:1995:i:3_supplement:p:g89-g100
    Contact details of provider: Postal:
    7240 Parkway Drive, Suite 300, Hanover, MD 21076 USA

    Phone: +1-443-757-3500
    Fax: 443-757-3515
    Web page:

    More information through EDIRC

    No references listed on IDEAS
    You can help add them by filling out this form.

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:inm:ormksc:v:14:y:1995:i:3_supplement:p:g89-g100. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mirko Janc)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.