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Competitiveness and environmental policies for agriculture: testing the Porter hypothesis


  • Shunsuke Managi


Porter hypothesis suggests tougher environmental regulations could spur technological growth, leading to an increase in productivity of market outputs, simultaneously providing greater environmental protection. This study tests the Porter hypothesis in US agriculture using state level data from 1973 through 1996. Luenberger productivity indexes, which are dual to the profit function and do not require the choice of input-output orientation, are measured with and without environmental factors. This study also tests the direction of causality between technological progress and stringent environmental regulation, and find support for a recast version of the Porter hypothesis, however, reject a standard version of the Porter hypothesis.

Suggested Citation

  • Shunsuke Managi, 2004. "Competitiveness and environmental policies for agriculture: testing the Porter hypothesis," International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 3(3/4), pages 310-324.
  • Handle: RePEc:ids:ijarge:v:3:y:2004:i:3/4:p:310-324

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    7. Darby, Michael R & Karni, Edi, 1973. "Free Competition and the Optimal Amount of Fraud," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 67-88, April.
    8. Klein, Benjamin & Crawford, Robert G & Alchian, Armen A, 1978. "Vertical Integration, Appropriable Rents, and the Competitive Contracting Process," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(2), pages 297-326, October.
    9. Milgrom, Paul & Roberts, John, 1990. "The Economics of Modern Manufacturing: Technology, Strategy, and Organization," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(3), pages 511-528, June.
    10. Carl Shapiro, 1983. "Premiums for High Quality Products as Returns to Reputations," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 98(4), pages 659-679.
    11. George A. Akerlof, 1970. "The Market for "Lemons": Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 84(3), pages 488-500.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ben Kriechel & Thomas Ziesemer, 2009. "The environmental Porter hypothesis: theory, evidence, and a model of timing of adoption," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(3), pages 267-294.
    2. Stefan Ambec & Mark A. Cohen & Stewart Elgie & Paul Lanoie, 2013. "The Porter Hypothesis at 20: Can Environmental Regulation Enhance Innovation and Competitiveness?," Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 7(1), pages 2-22, January.
    3. Shunsuke Managi & Pradyot Ranjan Jena, 2007. "Productivity and Environment in India," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 17(1), pages 1-14.
    4. Lota D. Tamini & Bruno Larue & Gale West, 2012. "Technical and environmental efficiencies and best management practices in agriculture," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(13), pages 1659-1672, May.
    5. Teemu Makkonen & Sari Repka, 2016. "The innovation inducement impact of environmental regulations on maritime transport: a literature review," International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 10(1), pages 69-86.
    6. Shunsuke Managi & Shinji Kaneko, 2006. "Productivity of market and environmental abatement in China," Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, Springer;Society for Environmental Economics and Policy Studies - SEEPS, vol. 7(4), pages 459-470, December.


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