IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Congestion Behavior under Uncertainty on Morning Commute with Preferred Arrival Time Interval


  • LingLing Xiao


  • Ronghui Liu


  • HaiJun Huang



This paper extends the bottleneck model to study congestion behavior of morning commute with flexible work schedule. The proposed model assumes a stochastic bottleneck capacity which follows a uniform distribution and homogeneous commuters who have the same preferred arrival time interval. The commuters are fully aware of the stochastic properties of travel time and schedule delay distributions at all departure times that emerge from day-to-day capacity variations. The commuters’ departure time choice follows user equilibrium (UE) principle in terms of the expected trip cost. Analytical and numerical solutions of this model are provided. The equilibrium departure time patterns are examined which show that the stochastic capacity increases the mean trip cost and lengthens the rush hour. The adoption of flexitime results in less congestion and more efficient use of bottleneck capacity than fixed-time work schedule. The longer the flexi-time interval is, the more uniformly distributed the departure times are.

Suggested Citation

  • LingLing Xiao & Ronghui Liu & HaiJun Huang, 2014. "Congestion Behavior under Uncertainty on Morning Commute with Preferred Arrival Time Interval," Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society, Hindawi, vol. 2014, pages 1-9, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:hin:jnddns:767851
    DOI: 10.1155/2014/767851

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Wang, Jing & Zhang, Xiaoning & Wang, Hua & Zhang, Michael, 2019. "Optimal parking supply in bi-modal transportation network considering transit scale economies," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 130(C), pages 207-229.
    2. Chen, Jin-Yong & Jiang, Rui & Li, Xin-Gang & Hu, Mao-Bin & Jia, Bin & Gao, Zi-You, 2019. "Morning commute problem with queue-length-dependent bottleneck capacity," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 121(C), pages 184-215.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hin:jnddns:767851. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mohamed Abdelhakeem). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.