IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Electoral Campaigning in Indonesia: The Professionalization and Commercialization after 1998


  • Andreas Ufen



According to “Western†models, there are three different stages of electioneering. In Indonesia, elements of these different stages are now combined. The result is not a comprehensive “Americanization†, but a professionalization, along with a hybridization of indigenous and foreign methods. At the beginning, the elections of 1955 were marked by a localized campaign and the absence of TV, pollsters and consultants. The long suppression of electoral politics (from 1957 until 1998) has decelerated the transition toward new forms of electioneering. Technological change, institutional reforms (especially the introduction of direct presidential and direct local elections), the general dealignment of political parties, and the extraordinary rise of pollsters and consultants have effected a professionalization and commercialization of campaigning since the fall of Suharto. Political parties are now tending to become more market-oriented.

Suggested Citation

  • Andreas Ufen, 2010. "Electoral Campaigning in Indonesia: The Professionalization and Commercialization after 1998," Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, Institute of Asian Studies, GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, vol. 29(4), pages 11-37.
  • Handle: RePEc:gig:soaktu:v:29:y:2010:i:4:p:11-37

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Dirk Tomsa, 2010. "Indonesian politics in 2010: the perils of stagnation," Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(3), pages 309-328.
    2. Rizal Sukma, 2009. "Indonesian politics in 2009: defective elections, resilient democracy," Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(3), pages 317-336.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gig:soaktu:v:29:y:2010:i:4:p:11-37. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Marco Bünte) or (Howard Loewen). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.