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Assessment of Global Emissions, Local Emissions and Immissions of Different Heating Systems

Author

Listed:
  • Johannes Henkel

    () (Berlin University of Technology, Department of Energy Systems, Einsteinufer 25 (TA 8), 10587 Berlin, Germany)

  • Robert Kunde

    () (Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research, Division 1: Technology for Energy Systems and Renewable Energy, Walther-Meissner-Str. 6, 85748 Garching, Germany)

  • Matthias Gaderer

    () (Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research, Division 1: Technology for Energy Systems and Renewable Energy, Walther-Meissner-Str. 6, 85748 Garching, Germany
    Technical University of Munich, Institute for Energy Systems, Boltzmann Str. 15, 85748 Garching, Germany)

  • Georg Erdmann

    () (Berlin University of Technology, Department of Energy Systems, Einsteinufer 25 (TA 8), 10587 Berlin, Germany)

Abstract

This paper assesses and compares existing and new technologies for space heating in Germany (e.g., heat pumps, and solar thermal and wood pellet systems) in terms of their environmental impacts. The various technologies were analyzed within the context of the new German legislation. The assessment was carried out on three levels: 1. Global emissions: a life cycle assessment was carried out in order to find the global environmental footprint of the various technologies; 2. Local emissions: the effects of local emissions on human health were analyzed; and 3. Immissions: the immissions were evaluated for the various technologies using a dispersion calculation. A special feature of this study is the substitution of frequently used database emission values by values obtained from field studies and our own measurements. The results show large differences between the different technologies: while electric heat pumps performed quite well in most categories, wood pellet systems performed the best with respect to climate change. The latter, however, are associated with high impacts in other environmental impact categories and on a local scale. The promotion of some technologies (especially systems based on fuel oil, a mixture of fuel oil and rapeseed oil, or a mixture of natural gas and biomethane) by the newly introduced German legislation is doubtful. In terms of the immissions of wood pellet systems, it can be concluded that, even for extremely unfavorable meteorological conditions, the regulatory limits are not exceeded and the heating systems have a negligible influence on the total PM load in the ambient air.

Suggested Citation

  • Johannes Henkel & Robert Kunde & Matthias Gaderer & Georg Erdmann, 2009. "Assessment of Global Emissions, Local Emissions and Immissions of Different Heating Systems," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 1(3), pages 1-22, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:1:y:2009:i:3:p:494-515:d:5568
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Jing Lin & Boqiang Lin, 2016. "How Much CO 2 Emissions Can Be Reduced in China’s Heating Industry," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(7), pages 1-16, July.
    2. repec:eee:rensus:v:80:y:2017:i:c:p:868-879 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. repec:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2018:i:2:p:561-:d:132946 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    heating systems; life cycle assessment; immissions; particulate matter; dispersion calculation;

    JEL classification:

    • Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics
    • Q0 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General
    • Q2 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q3 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q5 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products

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