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Why Has Japan's Fertility Rate Declined? An Empirical Literature Survey with an Emphasis on Policy Implications (in Japanese)


  • Yuske Date
  • Satoshi Shimizutani


This paper surveys the literature on the decline in Japan's fertility rate, which is now the lowest in its modern era. We survey empirical studies to examine the relationship between birthrate and several factors: an increase in the opportunity costs of having children, the growing costs of child-rearing, the shortage of child care services, poor company support for child care leave, and direct public compensation for having children. We conclude that all policies that support female workers and child care are especially important.

Suggested Citation

  • Yuske Date & Satoshi Shimizutani, 2005. "Why Has Japan's Fertility Rate Declined? An Empirical Literature Survey with an Emphasis on Policy Implications (in Japanese)," Economic Analysis, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI), vol. 176, pages 95-123, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:esj:esriea:176e

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