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Guía para los modelos multisectoriales del mercado de trabajo en los países en desarrollo

Author

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  • Fields, Gary S.

    (Universidad de Cornell)

Abstract

Labor markets are important, because most people, especially the poor, derive all or the great bulk of their income from the work they do. This paper approaches labor markets through multisector modeling. The first main substantive section presents the essence of multisector modeling, in particular, the role of labor market dualism. Given that labor markets often consist of quite distinct segments, a useful and insightful analytical approach is to start with just two interrelated segments, formal and informal. Accordingly, the next sections present models of wages and employment in the formal economy, the informal economy, and intersectoral linkages respectively. The final substantive section shows the contributions that these models make to understanding and policy analysis in labor markets. It would not be expected that the same model would fit East Africa and East Asia or South Africa and South Korea. Surely, the “correct” model is context-specific. Blending empirical observation and analytical modeling has yielded great advances. Sound labor market policies require sound labor market models.// Los mercados de trabajo son importantes porque la mayoría de la gente, sobre todo los pobres, obtienen todo su ingreso, o la mayor parte de él, del trabajo que realizan. Este ensayo estudia los mercados de trabajo por medio de los modelos sectoriales. La primera sección sustantiva presenta la esencia de la modelación multisectorial, en particular el papel del dualismo del mercado de trabajo. Dado que los mercados de trabajo se componen a menudo de segmentos muy distintos, un enfoque analítico útil y perspicaz consiste en empezar con sólo dos segmentos interrelacionados, el formal y el informal. En consecuencia, las secciones presentan modelos de salarios y empleo en la economía formal, la economía informal y las relaciones intersectoriales, respectivamente. La última sección sustantiva muestra las contribuciones de estos modelos al entendimiento y el análisis de la política en los mercados de trabajo. No debería esperarse que el mismo modelo se aplique a África Oriental y Asia Oriental, o a Sudáfrica y Corea del Sur. Sin duda, el modelo “correcto” es específico del contexto. La combinación de la observación empírica y la modelación analítica ha generado grandes avances. Las políticas sólidas para el mercado laboral requieren modelos sólidos del mercado de trabajo.

Suggested Citation

  • Fields, Gary S., 2008. "Guía para los modelos multisectoriales del mercado de trabajo en los países en desarrollo," El Trimestre Económico, Fondo de Cultura Económica, vol. 0(298), pages 257-297, abril-jun.
  • Handle: RePEc:elt:journl:v:75:y:2008:i:298:p:257-297
    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20430/ete.v75i298.402
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    File URL: http://www.eltrimestreeconomico.com.mx/index.php/te/article/view/402/447
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    mercado de trabajo formal e informal; modelos multisectoriales; países en desarrollo;

    JEL classification:

    • J20 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - General
    • J64 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search
    • O17 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements

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