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La brecha salarial y la teoría de igualdad de oportunidades. Un estudio de género para el caso mexicano

  • Mayer Foulkes, David

    (Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas)

  • Cordourier Real, Gabriela

    (Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas)

In this article we set out a methodology for defining compensation policies to reduce inequities according to the theory of the equality of opportunities. We expand Roemer’s approach by studying the determinants of income to find the most efficient compensation policies. We apply this methodology to the wage gap between genders in Mexico, using quantile regressions through different income levels. By decomposing the gender gap we show that it is not efficient to apply a homogenous compensation policy trough different income levels to attain equality of opportunities. We find that in the lowest it is men who are subject to a discrimination of approximately 12% that is due mainly to educational deficiencies. In deciles 3 to 9 women experiment a discrimination which implies receiving between 15% and 18% less that equally qualified men. Women who work are better educated that men, so that a compensation policy based on increasing their educational endowment is not appropriate. Policies lessening discrimination and equalizing women’s opportunities must diminish cultural and institucional prejudices, as well as the economic impact of specifically female biological and social roles.// En este artículo planteamos un esquema para definir políticas de compensación que persigan objetivos de equidad con los criterios de la teoría de igualdad de oportunidades. Ampliamos una propuesta de Roemer, estudiando los determinantes del salario para encontrar las políticas de compensación más eficientes. Aplicamos esta metodología al caso de la brecha salarial entre mujeres y hombres para el caso de México. Seguimos el método econométrico de regresión de cuantiles por medio de los diferentes niveles de ingreso. Mediante la descomposición de la brecha salarial se demuestra que la aplicación de una política homogénea para poblaciones con distintos salarios no es la opción más eficiente para alcanzar la igualdad de oportunidades. Encontramos que en el decil más bajo los hombres son objeto de discriminación de casi 12% que se debe sobre todo a sus deficiencias educativas, mientras que en los deciles 3 a 9 las mujeres experimentan una discriminación que implica recibir entre el 15 y 18% menos de lo que recibirían hombres igualmente calificados. Las mujeres que trabajan cuentan con mayor escolaridad que los hombres, por lo que una política de compensación basada en acervos educativos no es idónea. Las políticas que disminuyan la discriminación e igualen las oportunidades de la mujer deben reducir los prejuicios culturales e institucionales, así como el efecto económico de los papeles biológicos y sociales específicamente femeninos.

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Article provided by Fondo de Cultura Económica in its journal El Trimestre Económico.

Volume (Year): LXVIII (1) (2001)
Issue (Month): 269 (enero-marzo)
Pages: 71-107

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Handle: RePEc:elt:journl:v:68:y:2001:i:269:p:71-107
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