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Gravity models with multiple objectives-- Theory and applications


  • Hallefjord, Åsa
  • Jörnsten, Kurt


The gravity model has been widely used to predict trip matrices in transportation planning, both as a descriptive and an optimizing model. In this paper we present multiobjective programming formulations of the gravity model. The models use the concept of entropy, both as a measure of interactivity in the system, and as a distance measure, for measuring the distance from a reference or target point suggested by the planner. We also present gravity model formulations which do not require consistent estimates for the demand and supply in the different sites. These relaxed multiobjective gravity models include objectives for the demands and supplies, where the distance from some a priori given values is measured in entropy terms. The use of the models is illustrated on 1975 census data from the county of Östergötland, Sweden.

Suggested Citation

  • Hallefjord, Åsa & Jörnsten, Kurt, 1986. "Gravity models with multiple objectives-- Theory and applications," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 19-39, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:transb:v:20:y:1986:i:1:p:19-39

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    Cited by:

    1. Monica Oliveira, 2004. "Modelling demand and supply influences on utilization: A flow demand model to predict hospital utilization at the small area level," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(20), pages 2237-2251.
    2. Polyzos Serafeim, 2009. "The Egnatia Motorway and The Changes in Interregional Trade in Greece: An Ex Ante Assessment," European Spatial Research and Policy, De Gruyter Open, vol. 16(2), pages 23-47, December.
    3. Yim, Youngbin, 1992. "The Effects of Transportation Services On the Scale of Food Retailing," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt52638309, University of California Transportation Center.
    4. Nijkamp, P. & Reggiani, A., 1987. "Spatial interaction and input-output models : a dynamic stochastic multi-objective framework," Serie Research Memoranda 0059, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.

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