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Assessing systematic sources of variation in public transport elasticities: Some comparative warnings

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  • Hensher, David A.

Abstract

There is an extensive and continually growing body of empirical evidence on the sensitivity of potential and actual users of public transport to fare and service levels. The sources of the evidence are disparate in terms of methods, data collection strategy, data paradigms, trip purpose, location, time period, and attribute definition. In this paper, we draw on a data set we have been compiling since 2003 that contains over 1100 elasticity items associated with prices and services of public transport, and car modes. The focus herein is on direct elasticities associated with public transport choice and demand, and the systematic sources of influence on the variations in the mean estimates for fares, in-vehicle time, and headway obtained from 319 studies. The major influences on variations in mean estimates of public transport elasticities are the time of day (peak, all day vs. off-peak), the data paradigm (especially combined SP/RP vs. revealed preference (RP)), whether an average fare or class of tickets is included, the unit of analysis (trips vs. vkm), specific trip purposes, country, and specific-mode (i.e., bus and train) in contrast to the generic class of public transport.

Suggested Citation

  • Hensher, David A., 2008. "Assessing systematic sources of variation in public transport elasticities: Some comparative warnings," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 42(7), pages 1031-1042, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:transa:v:42:y:2008:i:7:p:1031-1042
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    Cited by:

    1. Miller, Caroline & Savage, Ian, 2017. "Does the demand response to transit fare increases vary by income?," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 79-86.
    2. Manuel Frondel & Colin Vance, 2010. "A Count Data Analysis of Ridership in Germany’s Public Transport," Ruhr Economic Papers 0209, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen.
    3. repec:eee:trapol:v:58:y:2017:i:c:p:72-79 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. repec:eee:retrec:v:62:y:2017:i:c:p:25-36 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. repec:eee:trapol:v:60:y:2017:i:c:p:63-74 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Hensher, David A. & Li, Zheng, 2010. "Accounting for differences in modelled estimates of RP, SP and RP/SP direct petrol price elasticities for car mode choice: A warning," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 191-195, May.
    7. Hensher, David A. & Li, Zheng & Mulley, Corinne, 2014. "Drivers of bus rapid transit systems – Influences on patronage and service frequency," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 159-165.
    8. repec:zbw:rwirep:0209 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Gkritza, Konstantina & Karlaftis, Matthew G. & Mannering, Fred L., 2011. "Estimating multimodal transit ridership with a varying fare structure," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 148-160, February.
    10. Drevs, Florian & Tscheulin, Dieter K. & Lindenmeier, Jörg & Renner, Simone, 2014. "Crowding-in or crowding out: An empirical analysis on the effect of subsidies on individual willingness-to-pay for public transportation," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 250-261.
    11. Holmgren, Johan, 2010. "Putting our money to good use: Can we attract more passengers without increasing subsidies?," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 256-260.
    12. Dujuan Yang & Harry Timmermans & Aloys Borgers, 2016. "The prevalence of context-dependent adjustment of activity-travel patterns in energy conservation strategies: results from a mixture-amount stated adaptation experiment," Transportation, Springer, vol. 43(1), pages 79-100, January.
    13. Frondel, Manuel & Vance, Colin, 2010. "A Count Data Analysis of Ridership in Germany's Public Transport," Ruhr Economic Papers 209, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.
    14. repec:gam:jsusta:v:9:y:2017:i:5:p:689-:d:96956 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Abrantes, Pedro A.L. & Wardman, Mark R., 2011. "Meta-analysis of UK values of travel time: An update," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 1-17, January.
    16. Sharaby, Nir & Shiftan, Yoram, 2012. "The impact of fare integration on travel behavior and transit ridership," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 21(C), pages 63-70.
    17. Dujuan Yang & Harry Timmermans & Aloys Borgers, 2016. "The prevalence of context-dependent adjustment of activity-travel patterns in energy conservation strategies: results from a mixture-amount stated adaptation experiment," Transportation, Springer, vol. 43(1), pages 79-100, January.
    18. Li, Zheng & Hensher, David A. & Rose, John M., 2011. "Identifying sources of systematic variation in direct price elasticities from revealed preference studies of inter-city freight demand," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 18(5), pages 727-734, September.
    19. Mark Wardman, 2012. "Review and meta-analysis of U.K. time elasticities of travel demand," Transportation, Springer, vol. 39(3), pages 465-490, May.
    20. Wang, Zi-jia & Li, Xiao-hong & Chen, Feng, 2015. "Impact evaluation of a mass transit fare change on demand and revenue utilizing smart card data," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 213-224.
    21. repec:eee:retrec:v:63:y:2017:i:c:p:13-26 is not listed on IDEAS
    22. David Hensher & Zheng Li, 2012. "Ridership drivers of bus rapid transit systems," Transportation, Springer, vol. 39(6), pages 1209-1221, November.
    23. Lefèvre, Benoit, 2009. "Long-term energy consumptions of urban transportation: A prospective simulation of "transport-land uses" policies in Bangalore," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 940-953, March.
    24. Rotaris, Lucia & Danielis, Romeo, 2014. "The impact of transportation demand management policies on commuting to college facilities: A case study at the University of Trieste, Italy," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 127-140.
    25. Frondel, Manuel & Vance, Colin, 2011. "Rarely enjoyed? A count data analysis of ridership in Germany's public transport," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 425-433, March.

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