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Health inequalities in the older population: the role of personal capital, social resources and socio-economic circumstances


  • Grundy, Emily
  • Sloggett, Andy


Older people now constitute the majority of those with health problems in developed countries so an understanding of health variations in later life is increasingly important. In this paper, we use data from three rounds of the Health Survey for England, a large nationally representative sample, to analyse variations in the health of adults aged 65-84 by indicators of attributes acquired in childhood and young adulthood, termed personal capital; and by current social resources and current socio-economic circumstances, while controlling for smoking behaviour and age. We used six indicators of health status in the analysis, four based on self-reports and two based on nurse collected data, which we hypothesised would identify different dimensions of health. Results showed that socio-economic indicators, particularly receipt of income support (a marker of poverty) were most consistently associated with raised odds of poor health outcomes. Associations between marital status and health were in some cases not in the expected direction. This may reflect bias arising from exclusion of the institutional population (although among those under 85 the proportion in institutions is very low) but merits further investigation, especially as the marital status composition of the older population is changing. Analysis of deviance showed that social resources (marital status and social support) had the greatest effect on the indicator of psychological health (GHQ) and also contributed significantly to variation in self-rated health, but among women not to variation in taking three or more medicines and among men not to self-reported long-standing illnesses. Smoking, in contrast, was much more strongly associated with these indicators than with self-rated health. These results are consistent with the view that self-rated health may provide a holistic indicator of health in the sense of well-being, whereas measures such as taking prescribed medications may be more indicative of specific morbidities. The results emphasise again the need to consider both socio-economic and socio-psychological influences on later life health.

Suggested Citation

  • Grundy, Emily & Sloggett, Andy, 2003. "Health inequalities in the older population: the role of personal capital, social resources and socio-economic circumstances," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 56(5), pages 935-947, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:socmed:v:56:y:2003:i:5:p:935-947

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    Cited by:

    1. Chau-kiu Cheung & Raymond Chan, 2010. "Social Capital as Exchange: Its Contribution to Morale," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 96(2), pages 205-227, April.
    2. Ploubidis, George B. & Benova, Lenka & Grundy, Emily & Laydon, Daniel & DeStavola, Bianca, 2014. "Lifelong Socio Economic Position and biomarkers of later life health: Testing the contribution of competing hypotheses," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 119(C), pages 258-265.
    3. Rasmus Hoffmann, 2005. "Does the socioeconomic mortality gradient interact with age? Evidence from US survey data and Danish register data," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2005-020, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
    4. Sören Edvinsson & Göran Broström, 2012. "Old age, health and social inequality," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 26(23), pages 633-660, June.
    5. Josephine Heap & Stefan Fors, 2015. "Duration and Accumulation of Disadvantages in Old Age," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 123(2), pages 411-429, September.
    6. Bruce Chapman & Cahit Guven, 2016. "Revisiting the Relationship Between Marriage and Wellbeing: Does Marriage Quality Matter?," Journal of Happiness Studies, Springer, vol. 17(2), pages 533-551, April.
    7. Mary Breheny & Christine Stephens & Fiona Alpass & Brendan Stevenson & Kristie Carter & Polly Yeung, 2013. "Development and Validation of a Measure of Living Standards for Older People," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 114(3), pages 1035-1048, December.
    8. Channon, Andrew Amos & Andrade, Monica Viegas & Noronha, Kenya & Leone, Tiziana & Dilip, T.R., 2012. "Inpatient care of the elderly in Brazil and India: Assessing social inequalities," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 75(12), pages 2394-2402.
    9. Matthews, Ruth J. & Smith, Lucy K. & Hancock, Ruth M. & Jagger, Carol & Spiers, Nicola A., 2005. "Socioeconomic factors associated with the onset of disability in older age: a longitudinal study of people aged 75 years and over," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 61(7), pages 1567-1575, October.
    10. Rasmus Hoffmann, 2004. "Does the impact of socioeconomic status on mortality decrease with increasing age?," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2004-016, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
    11. Elena Pirani & Silvana Salvini, 2012. "Socioeconomic Inequalities and Self-Rated Health: A Multilevel Study of Italian Elderly," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer;Southern Demographic Association (SDA), vol. 31(1), pages 97-117, February.
    12. Khawaja, Marwan & Abdulrahim, Sawsan & Soweid, Rima A.Afifi. & Karam, Dima, 2006. "Distrust, social fragmentation and adolescents' health in the outer city: Beirut and beyond," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 63(5), pages 1304-1315, September.
    13. Walker, Ruth B. & Hiller, Janet E., 2007. "Places and health: A qualitative study to explore how older women living alone perceive the social and physical dimensions of their neighbourhoods," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 65(6), pages 1154-1165, September.
    14. Huguet, Nathalie & Kaplan, Mark S. & Feeny, David, 2008. "Socioeconomic status and health-related quality of life among elderly people: Results from the Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 66(4), pages 803-810, February.


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