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What explains rural-urban differentials in child mortality in Brazil?

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  • Sastry, Narayan

Abstract

This paper presents an analysis of differentials in child survival by rural-urban place of residence in Brazil and examines the hypothesis that observed mortality differentials by place of residence are merely manifestations of underlying differences in socioeconomic status and demographic and reproductive behavior. The child mortality data come from the 1986 Demographic and Health Survey of Brazil and supplementary community-level variables are obtained from a database assembled by the Brazilian federal statistical agency. Child mortality rates are substantially and significantly lower in urban areas of Brazil. Our results suggest, however, that the urban advantage does not simply reflect underlying differences in socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics at the individual and household levels; rather, community variables appear to play an independent and important role. We also find that the effects of community characteristics on child survival are moderated by household socioeconomic factors, especially maternal education. Differences in socioeconomic characteristics are therefore important in explaining rural-urban child mortality differentials, but not in the way hypothesized by previous researchers.

Suggested Citation

  • Sastry, Narayan, 1997. "What explains rural-urban differentials in child mortality in Brazil?," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 44(7), pages 989-1002, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:socmed:v:44:y:1997:i:7:p:989-1002
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    Cited by:

    1. FFF1Narayan NNN1Sastry, 2004. "Urbanization, development and under-five mortality differentials by place of residence in São Paulo, Brazil, 1970-1991," Demographic Research Special Collections, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 2(14), pages 355-386, April.
    2. Izutsu, Takashi & Tsutsumi, Atsuro & Islam, Akramul Md. & Kato, Seika & Wakai, Susumu & Kurita, Hiroshi, 2006. "Mental health, quality of life, and nutritional status of adolescents in Dhaka, Bangladesh: Comparison between an urban slum and a non-slum area," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 63(6), pages 1477-1488, September.
    3. Laura B. Nolan, 2016. "Rural–Urban Child Height for Age Trajectories and Their Heterogeneous Determinants in Four Developing Countries," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer;Southern Demographic Association (SDA), vol. 35(5), pages 599-629, October.
    4. Johnson Samuel Adari & Mashaallah Rahnama Moghadam & Charles N. Starnes, 2007. "Life expectancy of people living with HIV|AIDS and associated socioeconomic factors in Kenya," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 19(3), pages 357-366.
    5. Narayan Sastry, 2002. "Urbanization, Development and Under-Five Mortality Differentials by Place of Residence in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1970-1991," Working Papers 02-13, RAND Corporation.
    6. Avan, Bilal Iqbal & Kirkwood, Betty, 2010. "Role of neighbourhoods in child growth and development: Does 'place' matter?," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 102-109, July.
    7. Nandita Saikia & Abhishek Singh & Domantas Jasilionis & Faujdar Ram, 2013. "Explaining the rural-urban gap in infant mortality in India," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 29(18), pages 473-506, September.
    8. Van de Poel, Ellen & O'Donnell, Owen & Van Doorslaer, Eddy, 2007. "Are urban children really healthier? Evidence from 47 developing countries," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 65(10), pages 1986-2003, November.
    9. Firestone, Rebecca & Punpuing, Sureeporn & Peterson, Karen E. & Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores & Gortmaker, Steven L., 2011. "Child overweight and undernutrition in Thailand: Is there an urban effect?," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 72(9), pages 1420-1428, May.
    10. Ellen van de Poel & Owen O'Donnell & Eddy van Doorslaer, 2007. "Are Urban Children really healthier?," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 07-035/3, Tinbergen Institute.
    11. repec:spr:demogr:v:55:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1007_s13524-017-0634-7 is not listed on IDEAS

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