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Les inegalites geographiques de l'infection a vih et du sida en Afrique sud-saharienne

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  • Amat-Roze, Jeanne-Marie

Abstract

Résumé Territoire le plus touché par les virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH), l'Afrique sud-saharienne n'en présente pas moins une géographie de l'infection trés contrastée, quelle que soit l'échelle d'observation. La fixation de la transmission paraît se réaliser de facon préferentielle sur des pôles et des axes où les virus ont trouvé, grâce à des facteurs environnementaux locaux, des conditions très favorables à leur dissémination. La dynamique de l'épidémie est la résultante d'un faisceau de facteurs mettant en jeu des comportements sociaux, culturels, religieux, des situations géographiques, politiques, économiques. La combinaison locale de tous les déterminants en cause explique la complexité et la diversité des caractéres géographiques de l'épidémie africaine. La connaissance des déterminants fait appel à des champs d'étude nombreux. Sont analysés ici les mouvements de population, leurs réseaux spatiaux et leurs conséquences. La confrontation de ces données géographiques avec les informations séro- épidémiologiques ouvre des hypothéses sur la dynamique spatiale de l'épidémie et sur les processus de sa régionalisation. The geography of HIV infection in Africa (which is the continent with the highest incidence rates) has varied features at each scale. The transmission is oriented preferentially according to axes and poles where the virus--because of local environmental factors--found favorable conditions to dissemination and spread. The dynamic of the epidemic results from factors related to sociologic, cultural, religious behaviour and to geographical, political and economic situations. The local combination of all the causal factors explains the complexity and diversity of the geographic characteristics of the African epidemic. The knowledge of the causal factors calls upon various disciplines. Spatial networks, population movements and their consequences are analyzed. Geographical data together with sero-epidemiologic information initiate hypothesises related to the spatial dynamic of the epidemic and to the processes of regionalisation.

Suggested Citation

  • Amat-Roze, Jeanne-Marie, 1993. "Les inegalites geographiques de l'infection a vih et du sida en Afrique sud-saharienne," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 36(10), pages 1247-1256, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:socmed:v:36:y:1993:i:10:p:1247-1256
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