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Long-term use of narcotic analgesics in chronic pain


  • France, Randal D.
  • Urban, Bruno J.
  • Keefe, Francis J.


The use of narcotic analgesics have been avoided by clinicians in patients with chronic pain syndromes. Uncertainty as to the etiological cause of chronic pain, development of addiction and habituation and associated psychological and behavioral symptoms found in chronic pain states which are not amenable to narcotic medications are the major reasons narcotics are not prescribed. This communication describes the long-term use of low dose narcotic analgesics as a treatment component of a comprehensive pain management program and addresses the questions of whether or not narcotic efficacy is maintained in long-term use, improvement of patients' function is continued and side effects develop as a result of this treatment.

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  • France, Randal D. & Urban, Bruno J. & Keefe, Francis J., 1984. "Long-term use of narcotic analgesics in chronic pain," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 19(12), pages 1379-1382, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:socmed:v:19:y:1984:i:12:p:1379-1382

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Temin, Peter, 1983. "Costs and benefits in switching drugs from Rx to OTC," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 187-205, December.
    2. Foster, S. D., 1990. "Improving the supply and use of essential drugs in sub-Saharan Africa," Policy Research Working Paper Series 456, The World Bank.
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