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Characteristics and performance of Japanese foreign direct investment in Europe


  • Nitsch, Detlev
  • Beamish, Paul
  • Makino, Shige


This article by Detlev Nitsch, Paul Beamish and Shige Makino provides an illuminating presentation of the characteristics and performance of 118 Japanese subsidiaries in Europe. The study is one of the few that contains performance data at the subsidiary level. Subsidiary performance is limited to the initial mode of entry, industry and country of entry, subsidiary size, and reasons for entering. Japanese investment in Europe grew significantly in the late 1980s, but was heavily concentrated in a few industries. Entry mode preferences have also shifted, away from greenfield start-ups to more use of joint ventures. Conclusions are of interest to European and non-European corporate managers, and public policy-makers.

Suggested Citation

  • Nitsch, Detlev & Beamish, Paul & Makino, Shige, 1995. "Characteristics and performance of Japanese foreign direct investment in Europe," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 276-285, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:eurman:v:13:y:1995:i:3:p:276-285

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    Cited by:

    1. Makino, Shige & Beamish, Paul W. & Zhao, Natalie Bin, 2004. "The characteristics and performance of Japanese FDI in less developed and developed countries," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 39(4), pages 377-392, November.
    2. Pak, Yong Suhk & Park, Young-Ryeol, 2005. "Characteristics of Japanese FDI in the East and the West: Understanding the strategic motives of Japanese investment," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 254-266, August.
    3. David Tanganelli & Jean-Louis Schaan, 2014. "Japanese subsidiaries in the European Union: Entry modes and performance," Cogent Economics & Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 2(1), pages 1-9, December.

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