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Resilience in children and youth: A review


  • Zolkoski, Staci M.
  • Bullock, Lyndal M.


Many children are reared in less than ideal family conditions (e.g., poverty, violence, substance abuse, family dissonance, family or personal illnesses). Situations such as these may inhibit the normal intellectual, social, and emotional development of children and youth, thus interfering with them reaching their full potential as adults. Conversely, many children encounter such adversities and fair well in spite of the challenges and may be considered to be resilient. This paper offers a review of the literature dating back to the 1970s to the present. In addition, several monumental longitudinal studies dating back to the 1950s are included. The paper reviews the (a) definition of resilience, (b) origins and recent advances in researching resilience, (c) protective factors, (d) models of resilience, (e) issues when researching resilience, (f) measures of resilience, and (g) resilience-based interventions.

Suggested Citation

  • Zolkoski, Staci M. & Bullock, Lyndal M., 2012. "Resilience in children and youth: A review," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 34(12), pages 2295-2303.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:cysrev:v:34:y:2012:i:12:p:2295-2303
    DOI: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.08.009

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    2. Woollett, Nataly & Cluver, Lucie & Hatcher, Abigail M. & Brahmbhatt, Heena, 2016. "“To be HIV positive is not the end of the world”: Resilience among perinatally infected HIV positive adolescents in Johannesburg," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 269-275.
    3. To, Siu-ming, 2016. "Loneliness, the search for meaning, and the psychological well-being of economically disadvantaged Chinese adolescents living in Hong Kong: Implications for life skills development programs," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 52-60.
    4. Theron, Linda C. & Theron, Adam M.C., 2014. "Education services and resilience processes: Resilient Black South African students' experiences," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(P3), pages 297-306.
    5. To, Siu-ming & Tam, Hau-lin & Ngai, Steven Sek-yum & Sung, Wai-leung, 2014. "Sense of meaningfulness, sources of meaning, and self-evaluation of economically disadvantaged youth in Hong Kong: implications for youth development programs," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(P3), pages 352-361.
    6. repec:rss:jnljms:v4i10p7 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Patton, Desmond U. & Roth, Benjamin J., 2016. "Good kids with ties to “deviant” peers: network strategies used by African American and Latino young men in violent neighborhoods," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 123-130.
    8. Schofield, Gillian & Biggart, Laura & Ward, Emma & Larsson, Birgit, 2015. "Looked after children and offending: An exploration of risk, resilience and the role of social cognition," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 125-133.
    9. Pritzker, Suzanne & Minter, Anthony, 2014. "Measuring adolescent resilience: An examination of the cross-ethnic validity of the RS-14," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 328-333.
    10. Altena, Astrid M. & Krabbenborg, Manon A.M. & Boersma, Sandra N. & Beijersbergen, Mariëlle D. & van den Berg, Yvonne H.M. & Vollebergh, Wilma A.M. & Wolf, Judith R.L.M., 2017. "The working alliance between homeless young adults and workers: A dyadic approach," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 368-374.
    11. Tlapek, Sarah Myers & Auslander, Wendy & Edmond, Tonya & Gerke, Donald & Voth Schrag, Rachel & Threlfall, Jennifer, 2017. "The moderating role of resiliency on the negative effects of childhood abuse for adolescent girls involved in child welfare," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 437-444.
    12. Davidson-Arad, Bilha & Navaro-Bitton, Iris, 2015. "Resilience among adolescents in foster care," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 63-70.
    13. repec:eee:cysrev:v:79:y:2017:i:c:p:517-526 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Jennings, Wesley G. & Gonzalez, Jennifer Reingle & Piquero, Alex R. & Bird, Hector & Canino, Glorisa & Maldonado-Molina, Mildred, 2016. "The nature and relevance of risk and protective factors for violence among Hispanic children and adolescents: Results from the Boricua Youth Study," Journal of Criminal Justice, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 41-47.
    15. Gwadz, Marya Viorst & Cleland, Charles M. & Leonard, Noelle R. & Bolas, James & Ritchie, Amanda S. & Tabac, Lara & Freeman, Robert & Silverman, Elizabeth & Kutnick, Alexandra & Dickson, Victoria Vaugh, 2017. "Understanding organizations for runaway and homeless youth: A multi-setting quantitative study of their characteristics and effects," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 398-410.

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    Resilience; Risk factors; Protective factors;


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