Resilience in children and youth: A review
Many children are reared in less than ideal family conditions (e.g., poverty, violence, substance abuse, family dissonance, family or personal illnesses). Situations such as these may inhibit the normal intellectual, social, and emotional development of children and youth, thus interfering with them reaching their full potential as adults. Conversely, many children encounter such adversities and fair well in spite of the challenges and may be considered to be resilient. This paper offers a review of the literature dating back to the 1970s to the present. In addition, several monumental longitudinal studies dating back to the 1950s are included. The paper reviews the (a) definition of resilience, (b) origins and recent advances in researching resilience, (c) protective factors, (d) models of resilience, (e) issues when researching resilience, (f) measures of resilience, and (g) resilience-based interventions.
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