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Cambio tecnológico y dinámica industrial en América Latina

Listed author(s):
  • Burachik, Gustavo

Los temas de este artículo se hallan en la intersección de la literatura sobre cambio tecnológico y aquella sobre dinámica industrial. El análisis se centra en la vinculación entre la forma de acumulación de conocimientos técnicos en una industria y la probabilidad de que la innovación pueda constituirse en el vehículo para el ingreso de nuevas empresas al sector. Los estudios de los países desarrollados abordan este tema a través de dos enfoques: el de los regímenes tecnológicos y el del ciclo de vida de la industria, conceptos ambos de raigambre evolucionista; en el artículo se dedica la sección II a su presentación. En la sección III, tras examinar si las distintas modalidades sectoriales de innovación están asociadas con distintos ritmos, características y perspectivas de supervivencia para los entrantes a la industria, se busca señalar qué conclusiones de dinámica pueden extraerse de la literatura sobre cambio tecnológico en las firmas manufactureras de los principales países de América Latina. Y en la sección IV se ofrecen algunas reflexiones finales. Los principales aportes del trabajo son los siguientes: i); ofrece una perspectiva distinta para la lectura del cambio tecnológico en América Latina e intenta elaborar un concepto equivalente al de "ventaja innovativa" que emplean los estudios de los países desarrollados; ii); sugiere que, en un contexto en el que las empresas innovan principalmente a través de la incorporación de conocimientos desarrollados por otras organizaciones, las empresas ya establecidas tienden a disfrutar de ventajas para incorporar el progreso técnico; y iii); de esto último se desprende que en aquellas actividades en las que la innovación de producto o de proceso define ventajas competitivas para las empresas ya instaladas, la "entrada innovativa" será un fenómeno poco frecuente.

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File URL: http://repositorio.cepal.org/handle/11362/12212
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Article provided by Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL) in its journal Revista CEPAL.

Volume (Year): (2000)
Issue (Month): (August)
Pages:

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Handle: RePEc:ecr:col070:12212
Note: Incluye Bibliografía
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  1. Mata, Jose & Portugal, Pedro, 1994. "Life Duration of New Firms," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(3), pages 227-245, September.
  2. Malerba, Franco, 1992. "Learning by Firms and Incremental Technical Change," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 102(413), pages 845-859, July.
  3. Malerba, Franco & Orsenigo, Luigi, 1995. "Schumpeterian Patterns of Innovation," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 19(1), pages 47-65, February.
  4. Winter, Sidney G., 1984. "Schumpeterian competition in alternative technological regimes," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 5(3-4), pages 287-320.
  5. Pavitt, Keith, 1984. "Sectoral patterns of technical change: Towards a taxonomy and a theory," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 13(6), pages 343-373, December.
  6. Klepper, Steven & Miller, John H., 1995. "Entry, exit, and shakeouts in the United States in new manufactured products," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 567-591, December.
  7. Martin Carree & Roy Thurik, 2005. "Understanding the role of entrepreneurship for economic growth," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2005-10, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  8. Murray Z. Frank, 1988. "An Intertemporal Model of Industrial Exit," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 103(2), pages 333-344.
  9. Jovanovic, Boyan, 1982. "Selection and the Evolution of Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(3), pages 649-670, May.
  10. Pakes, Ariel & Ericson, Richard, 1998. "Empirical Implications of Alternative Models of Firm Dynamics," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 79(1), pages 1-45, March.
  11. Gort, Michael & Klepper, Steven, 1982. "Time Paths in the Diffusion of Product Innovations," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 92(367), pages 630-653, September.
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