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Heteroskedasticity-Robust Standard Errors for Fixed Effects Panel Data Regression


  • James H. Stock
  • Mark W. Watson


The conventional heteroskedasticity-robust (HR) variance matrix estimator for cross-sectional regression (with or without a degrees-of-freedom adjustment), applied to the fixed-effects estimator for panel data with serially uncorrelated errors, is inconsistent if the number of time periods T is fixed (and greater than 2) as the number of entities n increases. We provide a bias-adjusted HR estimator that is nT-consistent under any sequences (n, T) in which n and/or T increase to infinity. This estimator can be extended to handle serial correlation of fixed order. Copyright The Econometric Society 2008.

Suggested Citation

  • James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson, 2008. "Heteroskedasticity-Robust Standard Errors for Fixed Effects Panel Data Regression," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 76(1), pages 155-174, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:ecm:emetrp:v:76:y:2008:i:1:p:155-174

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • C12 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Hypothesis Testing: General


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