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Causality Link Between Money, Output And Prices In Malaysia: An Empirical Re-Examination


  • MUHD-ZULKHIBRI, Abdul Majid


This paper re-examines the causality relationship between monetary aggregates, output and prices in the case of Malaysia. The study is based upon a vector autoregression (VAR) model applying the Granger no-causality procedure developed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995). The results indicate a two-way causality running between monetary aggregates, M2 and M3 and output which is consistent with theoretically conjecture by Keynesian and Monetarist views whereas there is a one-way causality running from monetary aggregate, M1 and output. In addition, the results suggest that all monetary aggregates have a strong one-way causality running from money to prices but no evidence for the opposite causality. Thus, the results add the empirical support to the argument in the literature that inflation is a monetary phenomenon.

Suggested Citation

  • MUHD-ZULKHIBRI, Abdul Majid, 2007. "Causality Link Between Money, Output And Prices In Malaysia: An Empirical Re-Examination," Applied Econometrics and International Development, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 7(1).
  • Handle: RePEc:eaa:aeinde:v:7:y:2007:i:1_19

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    Cited by:

    1. P., Srinivasan & M., Kalaivani, 2013. "On the Temporal Causal Relationship between Macroeconomic Variables: Empirical Evidence from India," MPRA Paper 46803, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item


    money-output; causality; Toda-Yamamoto; prices;

    JEL classification:

    • E51 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers
    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models


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