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The Dynamics of Income Inequality in Mexico since NAFTA

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  • Gerardo Esquivel

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Abstract

This paper reviews the pattern of income inequality in Mexico since 1994. It shows that in the past few years there has been an important reduction in income inequality in Mexico, which has almost reverted the sharp increase in inequality observed between 1984 and 1994. Using a Gini decomposition exercise we conclude that labor income, transfers and remittances have all played an important role in this process. We also argue that the equalizing effect of labor income and the reduction of wage inequality in Mexico can be explained by a structural change in Mexico´s workforce composition in terms of education and experience. In general, we conclude that the recent reduction of inequality in Mexico is due to the interaction of both, the market and the State.

Suggested Citation

  • Gerardo Esquivel, 2011. "The Dynamics of Income Inequality in Mexico since NAFTA," ECONOMIA JOURNAL OF THE LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION, ECONOMIA JOURNAL OF THE LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION, vol. 0(Fall 2011), pages 155-188, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:col:000425:009148
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Raymundo Campos & Gerardo Esquivel & Nora Lustig, 2012. "The Rise and Fall of Income Inequality in Mexico, 1989–2010," Working Papers 267, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    2. Raymundo M. Campos Vázquez & Andrés Hincapie & Rubén I. Rojas Valdés, 2011. "Family Income Inequality and the Role of Wives Earnings in Mexico: 1988-2010," Serie documentos de trabajo del Centro de Estudios Económicos 2011-07, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Económicos.
    3. Raymundo M. Campos Vazquez & Nora Lustig & Alma S. Santillán, 2014. "A methodological note on the measurement of labor income in Mexico," Estudios Económicos, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Económicos, vol. 29(1), pages 107-123.
    4. Souza, Pedro H.G.F., 2013. "The Decline in Inequality In Brazil, 2003-2009: The Role Of The State," Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series qt33q062zj, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
    5. Medeiros, Marcelo & Souza, Pedro H.G.F., 2013. "The State and income inequality in Brazil," Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series qt584222f0, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
    6. Claudia Tello & Raul Ramos & Manuel Artís, 2012. "Changes in wage structure in Mexico going beyond the mean: An analysis of differences in distribution, 1987-2008," Working Papers XREAP2012-07, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP), revised May 2012.
    7. Eduardo Michel Camacho & Willy W. Cortez, 2012. "Distribución del ingreso y bienestar social en México 1984-2008," Estudios Económicos, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Económicos, vol. 27(2), pages 347-378.
    8. Cinthya G. Caamal Olvera, 2017. "Decreasing returns to schooling in Mexico," Estudios Económicos, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Económicos, vol. 32(1), pages 27-63.
    9. Raymundo M. Campos-Vazquez & Nora Lustig, 2017. "Labour income inequality in Mexico: Puzzles solved and unsolved," WIDER Working Paper Series 186, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    10. Raymundo M. Campos-Vázquez, 2013. "Why did wage inequality decrease in Mexico after NAFTA?," Economía Mexicana NUEVA ÉPOCA, , vol. 0(2), pages 245-278, July-Dece.
    11. Andres Gomez-Lievano & Juan Tellez & Eduardo Lora, 2015. "New Insights About Wage Inequality in Colombia," CID Working Papers 66, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
    12. repec:unu:wpaper:wp2012-10 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. repec:bin:bpeajo:v:48:y:2017:i:2017-01:p:83-168 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. repec:gam:jscscx:v:6:y:2017:i:4:p:144-:d:120248 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Iniguez-Montiel, Alberto Javier, 2014. "Growth with Equity for the Development of Mexico: Poverty, Inequality, and Economic Growth (1992–2008)," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 313-326.
    16. repec:unu:wpaper:wp2012-13 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Perez, Victor, 2015. "Moving in and out of poverty in Mexico: What can we learn from pseudo-panel methods?," ISER Working Paper Series 2015-16, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    18. Cardoso-Vargas, Carlos, 2015. "Potencial de mercado y desigualdad salarial, evidencia para México
      [Market potential and wage inequality, evidence for Mexico]
      ," MPRA Paper 69696, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 05 Nov 2015.
    19. Acevedo, Carlos Gerardo & Cabrera, Maynor, 2012. "Social Policies or Private Solidarity? The Equalizing Role of Migration and Remittances in El Salvador," WIDER Working Paper Series 013, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    20. Enrique Leonardo Kato Vidal, 2015. "Violence in Mexico: An economic rationale of crime and its impacts," EconoQuantum, Revista de Economia y Negocios, Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Economico Administrativas, Departamento de Metodos Cuantitativos y Maestria en Economia., vol. 12(2), pages 93-108, Julio-Dic.
    21. Cardoso-Vargas, Carlos, 2015. "Potencial de mercado y desigualdad salarial, evidencia para México
      [Market potential and wage inequality, evidence for Mexico]
      ," MPRA Paper 68424, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 05 Nov 2015.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Income Inequality NAFTA Mexico wage;

    JEL classification:

    • E01 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General - - - Measurement and Data on National Income and Product Accounts and Wealth; Environmental Accounts
    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity

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