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Un estudio de las brechas municipales en calidad educativa en Colombia: 2000-2012

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  • David Hincapié Vélez

    ()

  • Osmar Leandro Loaiza Quintero

Abstract

Este artículo pretende estudiar las desigualdades regionales en materia del rendimiento educativo a nivel de básica secundaria, para el periodo 2007-2012, en los municipios colombianos. La calidad educativa municipal se mide a través de los resultados de la prueba Saber 11, aplicada a estudiantes de último grado. Para tal efecto, se utiliza un enfoque de convergencia, pero a diferencia de la literatura convencional, se vincula al análisis el componente espacial o geográfico como determinante del rendimiento educativo, y variable explicativa de las altas desigualdades educativas del país. Los resultados muestran que el rendimiento educativo de los municipios no presenta un proceso de convergencia en todas las áreas del conocimiento, sino que, por el contrario, los municipios se agrupan (conforman clústeres) de acuerdo a su nivel de calidad educativa. Además, se encuentra que el nivel de calidad educativa del vecindario tiene una fuerte influencia sobre las probabilidades que tiene un municipio de escalar o descender en la distribución de la calidad educativa.****** This article studies regional gaps in education quality at the senior high school level, for the period 2000-2012, in Colombia's municipalities. Municipal education quality is measured using a test called Saber 11, applied to high school students in their last year. With the aforementioned aim in mind, a non-parametric convergence analysis is carried out, in which the geographical element is taken into account as a factor influencing education quality and explaining regional gaps. Results suggest that there is no evidence of convergence and, on the contrary, it is found that municipalities cluster together in space according to their education quality level. Moreover, it is found that neighbourhoods education quality level has a large influence in the likelihood that a municipality has of moving up or down the distribution.

Suggested Citation

  • David Hincapié Vélez & Osmar Leandro Loaiza Quintero, 2016. "Un estudio de las brechas municipales en calidad educativa en Colombia: 2000-2012," Revista ESPE - Ensayos Sobre Política Económica, Banco de la República - ESPE, vol. 34(79), pages 3-20, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:col:000107:014429
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    Keywords

    Calidad educativa; Convergencia; Estadística espacial; Cadenas de Markov; Kernel estocástica;

    JEL classification:

    • R00 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General - - - General
    • C21 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models

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