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L'illicite et l'informel. Les complémentarités dans le fonctionnement des firmes en Bulgarie


  • Milena Gradeva


The presence of illicit practices within a company suggests a chain of adjustments in order to function efficiently. To maximise profits at minimum risks the firm needs to use informal mechanisms to manage its internal and external interactions. A survey based on a sample of Bulgarian enterprises demonstrates the complementarities between the illicit practices of official understatement of wages and the informal functioning of three dimensions of the firm: employment patterns, inter-company transactions and financing of operations. Abandoning of use of illicit practices is part of similar chain effects leading away from illicitness towards an open and formal functioning of the firm. Classification JEL : D21, J41, L14, O17

Suggested Citation

  • Milena Gradeva, 2009. "L'illicite et l'informel. Les complémentarités dans le fonctionnement des firmes en Bulgarie," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 60(5), pages 1211-1233.
  • Handle: RePEc:cai:recosp:reco_605_1211

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Charles F. Manski, 1993. "Identification of Endogenous Social Effects: The Reflection Problem," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 60(3), pages 531-542.
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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • D21 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Theory
    • J41 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Labor Contracts
    • L14 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Transactional Relationships; Contracts and Reputation
    • O17 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements


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