Monnaie de compte et système de paiements chez James Steuart. Quel rôle pour la stabilité bancaire ?
The part of literature concerning monetary theory which focuses on payments system corresponds to a specific tradition. This article seeks to state the peculiar place held in it by James Steuart when, in the XVIII th century, cash payments and partial money keep on ruling. Among the very first he investigates the consequences resulting from the development of a money of credit conceived as a complete one and he underlines the necessity of an imperative stability for the banking system. The first part examines why, with the aim of curbing hoardings and the spoliation of lenders associated with a nominalist approach of the unit of account, he defends the generalization of a banking currency mingled with a stable money of account. The second part studies how, with the ?bankarization?? of money creation, Steuart succeeds in showing the importance, as unit of account and standard of payments, of the numéraire chosen for the lending contracts of the banking system. A system which stability agents are confident with because prudential rules, regulation and supervision are considered as efficient. Classification JEL : B110, E420, E500, G200, G210, N230, N430
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