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Has Globalization Deepened Income Inequality in Mexico?

Author

Listed:
  • Borraz Fernando

    () (Universidad de Montevideo)

  • Lopez-Cordova Jose Ernesto

    () (International Finance Corporation, World Bank Group)

Abstract

In this paper we use household survey data to study the evolution of income distribution in Mexico over the last decade, a period of rapid integration to the global and North American economies -- "globalization" for short. We measure differences in income inequality, over time and across Mexican states, and relate them to regional differences in the degree of globalization, controlling for the potential endogenous relationship between the two. We use the percent of state employment in exporting firms or in firms with foreign capital participation, as well as data on state trade, as proxies for integration to the world economy. Our findings strongly indicate that globalization has not raised income inequality in Mexico. On the contrary, we present compelling evidence showing that income distribution is more equitable in states that are more closely linked to the world economy and that those states exhibit larger declines in inequality. We also find some statistical evidence suggesting that deepening globalization results in reduced inequality, although our results are sketchier on this point, perhaps because such effect is only observable in the long run. As a potential explanation of why globalization might improve the distribution of income among Mexican households, we show that states that are more integrated to the world economy offer better work opportunities for low-skilled women relative to more educated female workers.

Suggested Citation

  • Borraz Fernando & Lopez-Cordova Jose Ernesto, 2007. "Has Globalization Deepened Income Inequality in Mexico?," Global Economy Journal, De Gruyter, vol. 7(1), pages 1-57, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:bpj:glecon:v:7:y:2007:i:1:n:6
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. -, 2014. "International trade and inclusive development: Building synergies," Libros y Documentos Institucionales, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), number 3 edited by Eclac.
    2. Raymundo M. Campos Vazquez & Nora Lustig & Alma S. Santillán, 2014. "A methodological note on the measurement of labor income in Mexico," Estudios Económicos, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Económicos, vol. 29(1), pages 107-123.
    3. Fernando Riosmena & Douglas S. Massey, 2012. "Pathways to El Norte: Origins, Destinations, and Characteristics of Mexican Migrants to the United States," International Migration Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(1), pages 3-36, March.
    4. Raymundo M. Campos-Vazquez & Nora Lustig, 2017. "Labour income inequality in Mexico: Puzzles solved and unsolved," WIDER Working Paper Series 186, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    5. Bhandari, Bornali, 2007. "Effect of Inward Foreign Direct Investment on Income Inequality in Transition Countries," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 22, pages 888-928.
    6. J. Ernesto Lopez-Cordova & Christopher M. Meissner, 2005. "The Globalization of Trade and Democracy, 1870-2000," NBER Working Papers 11117, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Horgos Daniel, 2012. "International Outsourcing and Wage Rigidity," Global Economy Journal, De Gruyter, vol. 12(2), pages 1-28, June.
    8. Robert A. Blecker & Gerardo Esquivel, 2009. "NAFTA, Trade, and Development," Working Papers 2009-24, American University, Department of Economics.
    9. -, 2014. "International trade and inclusive development: Building synergies," Colección "La hora de la Igualdad", Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), number 3 edited by Eclac, July.
    10. Christopher M. Meissner & Jose Ernesto Lopez Cordova, 2005. "Globalization and Democracy, 1870-2000," 2005 Meeting Papers 112, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    11. Escobar Gamboa, Octavio Romano, 2009. "IDE entrants, exportations et productivité manufacturière : les différentes performances des régions mexicaines," Economics Thesis from University Paris Dauphine, Paris Dauphine University, number 123456789/3850 edited by Guillochon, Bernard, January.
    12. Mesbah Motamed & Kenneth A. Foster & Wallace E. Tyner, 2008. "Applying cointegration and error correction to measure trade linkages: maize prices in the United States and Mexico," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 39(1), pages 29-39, July.
    13. Eduardo Michel Camacho & Willy W. Cortez, 2012. "Distribución del ingreso y bienestar social en México 1984-2008," Estudios Económicos, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Económicos, vol. 27(2), pages 347-378.
    14. Robert A. Blecker & Gerardo Esquivel, 2010. "NAFTA, Trade and Development (Robert A. Blecker and Gerardo Esquivel)," CESifo Forum, Ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 11(4), pages 17-30, December.
    15. Octavio R. Escobar Gamboa, 2010. "The (un)lucky neighbour: Differences in export performance across Mexico's states," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 89(4), pages 777-799, November.
    16. Lipford Jody W. & Yandle Bruce, 2011. "NAFTA, Environmental Kuznets Curves, and Mexico's Progress," Global Economy Journal, De Gruyter, vol. 10(4), pages 1-20, January.
    17. Robert A. Blecker, 2015. "Integration, Productivity, and Inclusion in Mexico: A Macro Perspective," Working Papers 2015-06, American University, Department of Economics.
    18. Fernando Borraz & Máximo Rossi & Daniel Ferres, 2012. "Distributive Effects of Regional Trade Agreements on the ‘Small Trading Partners’: Mercosur and the Case of Uruguay and Paraguay," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(12), pages 1828-1843, December.
    19. repec:dau:papers:123456789/10604 is not listed on IDEAS

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