IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

The Effects and Determinants of Training


  • Greenhalgh, Christine
  • Stewart, Mark


Using retrospective work history data for over 50,000 men and women in Great Britain surveyed in 1975-76, the authors document the amount of vocational training occurring in a ten-year period and discuss its effects and determinants. The effects of training on occupational status are estimated for married and single men and women, using a model which controls for unobserved fixed personal attributes. Women are found to receive significantly less full-time training than men but such training yields larger returns for women than for men. Copyright 1987 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd

Suggested Citation

  • Greenhalgh, Christine & Stewart, Mark, 1987. "The Effects and Determinants of Training," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 49(2), pages 171-190, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:obuest:v:49:y:1987:i:2:p:171-90

    Download full text from publisher

    To our knowledge, this item is not available for download. To find whether it is available, there are three options:
    1. Check below whether another version of this item is available online.
    2. Check on the provider's web page whether it is in fact available.
    3. Perform a search for a similarly titled item that would be available.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Peter Reinhard Hansen & Asger Lunde & James M. Nason, 2003. "Choosing the Best Volatility Models: The Model Confidence Set Approach," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 65(s1), pages 839-861, December.
    2. Jondeau, Eric & Rockinger, Michael, 2001. "Gram-Charlier densities," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 25(10), pages 1457-1483, October.
    3. León, à ngel & Mencía, Javier & Sentana, Enrique, 2009. "Parametric Properties of Semi-Nonparametric Distributions, with Applications to Option Valuation," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 27(2), pages 176-192.
    4. Whitney K. Newey & Douglas G. Steigerwald, 1997. "Asymptotic Bias for Quasi-Maximum-Likelihood Estimators in Conditional Heteroskedasticity Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 65(3), pages 587-600, May.
    5. Velasco, Carlos & Robinson, Peter M., 2001. "Edgeworth Expansions For Spectral Density Estimates And Studentized Sample Mean," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 17(03), pages 497-539, June.
    6. Hansen, Peter Reinhard, 2005. "A Test for Superior Predictive Ability," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 23, pages 365-380, October.
    7. Paul H. Kupiec, 1995. "Techniques for verifying the accuracy of risk measurement models," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 95-24, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    8. Awartani, Basel M.A. & Corradi, Valentina, 2005. "Predicting the volatility of the S&P-500 stock index via GARCH models: the role of asymmetries," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 167-183.
    9. Bollerslev, Tim, 1986. "Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 307-327, April.
    10. Hansen, Peter Reinhard & Lunde, Asger, 2006. "Consistent ranking of volatility models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 131(1-2), pages 97-121.
    11. Morten B. Jensen & Asger Lunde, 2001. "The NIG-S&ARCH model: a fat-tailed, stochastic, and autoregressive conditional heteroskedastic volatility model," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 4(2), pages 1-10.
    12. Gneiting, Tilmann & Raftery, Adrian E., 2007. "Strictly Proper Scoring Rules, Prediction, and Estimation," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 102, pages 359-378, March.
    13. Patton, Andrew J., 2011. "Volatility forecast comparison using imperfect volatility proxies," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 160(1), pages 246-256, January.
    14. Glosten, Lawrence R & Jagannathan, Ravi & Runkle, David E, 1993. " On the Relation between the Expected Value and the Volatility of the Nominal Excess Return on Stocks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(5), pages 1779-1801, December.
    15. Robert F. Engle & Simone Manganelli, 2004. "CAViaR: Conditional Autoregressive Value at Risk by Regression Quantiles," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 22, pages 367-381, October.
    16. Jose A. Lopez, 1999. "Methods for evaluating value-at-risk estimates," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, pages 3-17.
    17. Diebold, Francis X & Gunther, Todd A & Tay, Anthony S, 1998. "Evaluating Density Forecasts with Applications to Financial Risk Management," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 39(4), pages 863-883, November.
    18. Sargan, J D, 1975. "Gram-Charlier Approximations Applied to t Ratios of k-Class Estimators," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 43(2), pages 327-346, March.
    19. Robert JARROW & Andrew RUDD, 2008. "Approximate Option Valuation For Arbitrary Stochastic Processes," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Financial Derivatives Pricing Selected Works of Robert Jarrow, chapter 1, pages 9-31 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    20. Gallant, A Ronald & Nychka, Douglas W, 1987. "Semi-nonparametric Maximum Likelihood Estimation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 363-390, March.
    21. Bollerslev, Tim, 1987. "A Conditionally Heteroskedastic Time Series Model for Speculative Prices and Rates of Return," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 69(3), pages 542-547, August.
    22. Robert Engle, 2001. "GARCH 101: The Use of ARCH/GARCH Models in Applied Econometrics," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(4), pages 157-168, Fall.
    23. Christoffersen, Peter F, 1998. "Evaluating Interval Forecasts," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 39(4), pages 841-862, November.
    24. Leon, Angel & Rubio, Gonzalo & Serna, Gregorio, 2005. "Autoregresive conditional volatility, skewness and kurtosis," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(4-5), pages 599-618, September.
    25. Ignacio Mauleon & Javier Perote, 2000. "Testing densities with financial data: an empirical comparison of the Edgeworth-Sargan density to the Student's t," The European Journal of Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(2), pages 225-239.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Edwin Leuven & Hessel Oosterbeek, 2002. "A New Approach to estimate the Wage Returns to Work-related Training," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 02-091/3, Tinbergen Institute.
    2. Paul W. Miller, 1994. "Gender Discrimination in Training: An Australian Perspective," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 32(4), pages 539-564, December.
    3. Bauer, Thomas K. & Haisken-DeNew, John P., 2001. "Employer learning and the returns to schooling," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 161-180, May.
    4. Xiao, Jin, 2002. "Determinants of salary growth in Shenzhen, China: an analysis of formal education, on-the-job training, and adult education with a three-level model," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 557-577, December.
    5. Elizabeth Webster & Kelly Jarvis, 2003. "The Occupational Career Paths of Australian Tradesmen," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2003n14, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
    6. Christine Greenhalgh & George Mavrotas, 1996. "Job Training, New Technology and Labour Turnover," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 34(1), pages 131-150, March.
    7. Kuan Xu & Zhengxi Lin, 2007. "Participation in Employer-sponsored Training in Canada: Role of Firm Characteristics and Worker Attributes," Department of Economics at Dalhousie University working papers archive paperb1_7_ic_workingpaper, Dalhousie, Department of Economics.
    8. Edwin Leuven & Hessel Oosterbeek, 2008. "An alternative approach to estimate the wage returns to private-sector training," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(4), pages 423-434.
    9. Hidalgo, Diana & Oosterbeek, Hessel & Webbink, Dinand, 2014. "The impact of training vouchers on low-skilled workers," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 117-128.
    10. John Gibson, 2003. "Do Lower Expected Wage Benefits Explain Ethnic Age Gaps in Job-Related Training? Evidence from New Zealand," Working Papers 03_03, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.
    11. McIntosh, Steven, 1999. "A cross-country comparison of the determinants of vocational training," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 20213, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    12. Brian Bell & Richard Blundell & John Reenen, 1999. "Getting the Unemployed Back to Work: The Role of Targeted Wage Subsidies," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 6(3), pages 339-360, August.
    13. Lorraine Dearden & Howard Reed & John Van Reenen, 2006. "The Impact of Training on Productivity and Wages: Evidence from British Panel Data," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 68(4), pages 397-421, August.
    14. Francis Green, 1991. "Sex Discrimination in Job-Related Training," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 29(2), pages 295-304, June.
    15. David G. Blanchflower & Lisa M. Lynch, 1994. "Training at Work: A Comparison of U.S. and British Youths," NBER Chapters,in: Training and the Private Sector: International Comparisons, pages 233-260 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. Cockx, Bart & Van der Linden, Bruno & Karaa, Adel, 1998. "Active Labour Market Policies and Job Tenure," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 50(4), pages 685-708, October.
    17. Giorgio Brunello & Maria De Paola, 2004. "Market Failures and the Under-Provision of Training," CESifo Working Paper Series 1286, CESifo Group Munich.
    18. Salas-Velasco, Manuel, 2009. "Beyond lectures and tutorials: Formal on-the-job training received by young European university graduates," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(3), pages 200-211, September.
    19. Verhaest, Dieter & Omey, Eddy, 2009. "The relation between formal education and skill acquisition in young workers first job," Working Papers 2009/07, Hogeschool-Universiteit Brussel, Faculteit Economie en Management.
    20. Sean Kennedy & Robert Drago & Judith Sloan & Mark Wooden, 1994. "The Effect of Trade Unions on the Provision of Training: Australian Evidence," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 32(4), pages 565-580, December.
    21. Hui, Taylor Shek-wai & Smith, Jeffrey A., 2002. "The Determinants of Participation in Adult Education and Training in Canada," MPRA Paper 17998, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    22. Michael Gerfin & Robert E. Leu & Reto Nyffeler, 2003. "Berufliche Weiterbildung in der Schweiz," Diskussionsschriften dp0318, Universitaet Bern, Departement Volkswirtschaft.
    23. Derek Hum & Wayne Simpson, 2003. "Job-Related Training Activity by Immigrants to Canada," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 29(4), pages 469-489, December.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:obuest:v:49:y:1987:i:2:p:171-90. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing) or (Christopher F. Baum). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.