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Social enterprise for work integration in 12 european countries: a descriptive analysis


  • Roger Spear
  • Eric Bidet


The development of social enterprise is a rapidly emerging trend in Europe. And one sector where they have found a particularly important place is in work integration, addressing some of the more difficult problems of social exclusion in labour markets. The study on which this paper is based was a large scale comparative analysis of developments of these social enterprise in 12 European countries While there are clear differences in national contexts, there are also similarities in the forms and characteristics of these social enterprise across Europe. It is argued that this form of social enterprise has proved effective and is an important innovation to address problems of more marginalised groups and individuals, but there remain issues about how to sustain and promote the good models and good practices developed. Copyright CIRIEC, 2005.

Suggested Citation

  • Roger Spear & Eric Bidet, 2005. "Social enterprise for work integration in 12 european countries: a descriptive analysis ," Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 76(2), pages 195-231, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:annpce:v:76:y:2005:i:2:p:195-231

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    Cited by:

    1. Pier Angelo MORI, 2014. "Community And Cooperation: The Evolution Of Cooperatives Towards New Models Of Citizens' Democratic Participation In Public Services Provision," Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 85(3), pages 327-352, September.
    2. Millán Díaz-Foncea & Carmen Marcuello, 2012. "Social enterprises and social markets: models and new trends," Service Business, Springer;Pan-Pacific Business Association, vol. 6(1), pages 61-83, March.
    3. repec:spr:jlabre:v:38:y:2017:i:2:d:10.1007_s12122-017-9248-5 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Antonio PICCIOTTI & Andrea BERNARDONI & Massimo COSSIGNANI & Luca FERRUCCI, 2014. "Social Cooperatives In Italy: Economic Antecedents And Regional Distribution," Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 85(2), pages 213-231, June.
    5. Pier Angelo Mori, 2014. "Community and cooperation: the evolution of cooperatives towards new models of citizens� democratic participation in public services provision," Euricse Working Papers 1463, Euricse (European Research Institute on Cooperative and Social Enterprises).
    6. Marlene WALK & Itay GREENSPAN & Honey CROSSLEY & Femida HANDY, 2015. "Mind the Gap: Expectations and Experiences of Clients Utilizing Job-Training Services in a Social Enterprise," Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 86(2), pages 221-244, June.
    7. Roy, Michael J. & Donaldson, Cam & Baker, Rachel & Kerr, Susan, 2014. "The potential of social enterprise to enhance health and well-being: A model and systematic review," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 123(C), pages 182-193.
    8. repec:spr:jglont:v:7:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1186_s40497-017-0067-1 is not listed on IDEAS

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