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Social enterprise for work integration in 12 european countries: a descriptive analysis


  • Roger Spear
  • Eric Bidet


The development of social enterprise is a rapidly emerging trend in Europe. And one sector where they have found a particularly important place is in work integration, addressing some of the more difficult problems of social exclusion in labour markets. The study on which this paper is based was a large scale comparative analysis of developments of these social enterprise in 12 European countries While there are clear differences in national contexts, there are also similarities in the forms and characteristics of these social enterprise across Europe. It is argued that this form of social enterprise has proved effective and is an important innovation to address problems of more marginalised groups and individuals, but there remain issues about how to sustain and promote the good models and good practices developed. Copyright CIRIEC, 2005.

Suggested Citation

  • Roger Spear & Eric Bidet, 2005. "Social enterprise for work integration in 12 european countries: a descriptive analysis ," Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 76(2), pages 195-231, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:annpce:v:76:y:2005:i:2:p:195-231

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Mario Fortin & Andre Leclerc, 2007. "Should we Abandon the Intermediation Approach for Analyzing Banking Performance?," Cahiers de recherche 07-01, Departement d'Economique de l'École de gestion à l'Université de Sherbrooke.
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    5. Fried, Harold O. & Knox Lovell, C. A. & Eeckaut, Philippe Vanden, 1993. "Evaluating the performance of US credit unions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 251-265, April.
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    8. Lozano-Vivas, Ana & Humphrey, David B., 2002. "Bias in Malmquist index and cost function productivity measurement in banking," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(2), pages 177-188, March.
    9. Santiago Carbó Valverde & David Humphrey & Rafael López del Paso, 2007. "Opening the black box: Finding the source of cost inefficiency," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 27(3), pages 209-220, June.
    10. Andrew C. Worthington, 2001. "Efficiency in pre-merger and post-merger non-bank financial institutions," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(8), pages 439-452.
    11. David A. Becher & George Deltas & George Pinteres, 2006. "Reconsidering the degree of inefficiency of financial institutions," Proceedings 1026, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    12. Tone, Kaoru, 2002. "A slacks-based measure of super-efficiency in data envelopment analysis," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 143(1), pages 32-41, November.
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    14. Ralston, Deborah, 2001. "The Impact of Regulatory Reform on the Portfolio Performance of Australian Credit Unions," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 77(237), pages 167-182, June.
    15. Amel, Dean & Barnes, Colleen & Panetta, Fabio & Salleo, Carmelo, 2004. "Consolidation and efficiency in the financial sector: A review of the international evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(10), pages 2493-2519, October.
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    Cited by:

    1. Millán Díaz-Foncea & Carmen Marcuello, 2012. "Social enterprises and social markets: models and new trends," Service Business, Springer;Pan-Pacific Business Association, vol. 6(1), pages 61-83, March.
    2. repec:spr:jlabre:v:38:y:2017:i:2:d:10.1007_s12122-017-9248-5 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Pier Angelo Mori, 2014. "Community and cooperation: the evolution of cooperatives towards new models of citizens� democratic participation in public services provision," Euricse Working Papers 1463, Euricse (European Research Institute on Cooperative and Social Enterprises).
    4. Roy, Michael J. & Donaldson, Cam & Baker, Rachel & Kerr, Susan, 2014. "The potential of social enterprise to enhance health and well-being: A model and systematic review," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 123(C), pages 182-193.
    5. repec:spr:jglont:v:7:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1186_s40497-017-0067-1 is not listed on IDEAS

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