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Effects of a restricted work-site smoking policy on employees who smoke


  • Brigham, J.
  • Gross, J.
  • Stitzer, M.L.
  • Felch, L.J.


Objectives. This study evaluated the biological and subjective consequences observed in individual smokers after implementation of a workplace smoking-restriction policy. Methods. Employees were evaluated for 4 weeks before and 4 weeks after their workplace became smoke-free (n = 34). A comparison group of smokers whose work-site smoking was unrestricted served as controls (n = 33). Daily exposure to tobacco constituents and withdrawal effects were measured. Results. Smokers at the restricted site had verified smoking reduction (mean = four cigarettes per day) and significantly reduced nicotine and carbon monoxide during the work shift. There were increases in ratings of some common withdrawal symptoms (cravings/urges, concentration difficulties, increased eating, depression). No evidence of compensatory smoking during nonwork hours was found. Overall tobacco exposure, as measured in saliva cotinine, showed a nonsignificant 15% decline. Conclusions. Workplace smoking restriction markedly altered smoking patterns (i.e., reduced daytime smoking) and reduced cotinine levels to an amount consistent with cigarette reduction. Thus, work-site smoking restriction may promote meaningful, albeit limited, reductions in tobacco exposure and consequent health risks.

Suggested Citation

  • Brigham, J. & Gross, J. & Stitzer, M.L. & Felch, L.J., 1994. "Effects of a restricted work-site smoking policy on employees who smoke," American Journal of Public Health, American Public Health Association, vol. 84(5), pages 773-778.
  • Handle: RePEc:aph:ajpbhl:1994:84:5:773-778_4

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    Cited by:

    1. Kenneth Silverman & Elias Robles, 1999. "Employment as a Drug Abuse Treatment Intervention: A Behavioral Economic Analysis," NBER Chapters, in: The Economic Analysis of Substance Use and Abuse: An Integration of Econometric and Behavioral Economic Research, pages 279-310, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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