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Los aranceles, la política de comercio exterior y la estabilidad de la agricultura española (1870-1914)

Author

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  • Martinez, Domingo Gallego

Abstract

En este trabajo se presentan una gama de estimaciones de la protección arancelaria media al sector agrario. Se desagrega la protección agraria en la otorgada a distintos grupos de productos procedentes del campo. Se integra la política aduanera en la de comercio exterior y, finalmente, se reflexiona sobre las consecuencias para el desarrollo económico de ésta última. En la imagen general que surge de este texto destaca la continuidad de la política aduanera entre 1870 y 1914, en concreto se destaca la persistencia de su carácter selectivo en favor de la agroindustria y del trigo. En este escenario se resalta el carácter coyuntural y excepcional de la fuerte y generalizada protección introducida por el arancel de 1891. En conjunto esta política aduanera no estuvo exenta de costes, pero también pudo favorecer la transformación del sector agrario: sin diluir los incentivos que inducían al cambio, dotó a las explotaciones de un contexto más estable que pudo facilitar su capacidad de respuesta. Pese a todo, los efectos de la política aduanera debieron ser moderados, alejados del protagonismo estelar que tradicionalmente se les ha atribuido...In this work we present a range of estimates of the average tariff protection of the agrarian sector. We divide the agrarian protection into that given to distinct groups of products that come from the countryside. We integrate customs duty policy with foreign trade policy and finally, we reflect on the consequences of the latter for economic development. In the general picture that emerges from this text, the continuity of the customs duty policy between 1870 and 1914 stands out, and specially the persistence of its selective character in fawour of agroindustry and wheat. Against this background, the sudden and exceptional nature of the strong and generalised protection introduced by the tariffs of 1891 is outstanding. This customs duty policy was not without its costs, but it also favoured the transformation of the agrarian sector: without diluting the incentives that induced change, it gave the farms a more stable context that increased their capacity for response. In spite of everything, the effects of the customs tariff policy must have been moderate, far from the leading role that has traditionally been attributed to them.

Suggested Citation

  • Martinez, Domingo Gallego, . "Los aranceles, la política de comercio exterior y la estabilidad de la agricultura española (1870-1914)," Revista Espanola de Estudios Agrosociales y Pesqueros, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Rural y Marino (formerly Ministry of Agriculture), issue 198, pages 1-68.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:spreea:184181
    DOI: 10.22004/ag.econ.184181
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    File URL: https://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/184181/files/pdf_reeap-r198_01.pdf
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    1. Martínez, Domingo Gallego & Navarro, Vicente Pinilla, 1996. "Del librecambio matizado al proteccionismo selectivo: el comercio exterior de productos agrarios y alimentos en España entre 1849 y 1935," Revista de Historia Económica / Journal of Iberian and Latin American Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 14(2), pages 371-420, September.

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