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Oil Price Shocks and the U.S. Stagflation of the 1970s: Some Insights from GEM


  • Benjamin Hunt


Using a variant of the IMF's Global Economy Model (GEM), featuring energy as both an intermediate input into production and a final consumption good, this paper examines the macroeconomic implications of large increases in the price of energy. Within a fully optimizing framework with nominal and real rigidities arising from costly adjustment, large increases in energy prices can generate inflation persistence similar to that seen in the 1970s if the monetary authority misperceives the economyÕs supply capacity and workers are able to temporarily resist some of the erosion in their real consumption wages resulting from the energy price increase. In the absence of these two responses, the model suggests that energy price shocks cannot generate the type of stagflation witnessed in the 1970s. The analysis goes some way toward reconciling the results found in the empirical literature on the changing nature of the macroeconomic implications of oil price shocks.

Suggested Citation

  • Benjamin Hunt, 2006. "Oil Price Shocks and the U.S. Stagflation of the 1970s: Some Insights from GEM," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4), pages 61-80.
  • Handle: RePEc:aen:journl:2006v27-04-a03

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Narayan, Paresh Kumar & Narayan, Seema & Zheng, Xinwei, 2010. "Gold and oil futures markets: Are markets efficient?," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(10), pages 3299-3303, October.
    2. Ewing, Bradley T. & Malik, Farooq, 2013. "Volatility transmission between gold and oil futures under structural breaks," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 113-121.
    3. Álvarez, Luis J. & Hurtado, Samuel & Sánchez, Isabel & Thomas, Carlos, 2011. "The impact of oil price changes on Spanish and euro area consumer price inflation," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 422-431.
    4. Lorde, Troy & Jackman, Mahalia & Thomas, Chrystol, 2009. "The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country: The case of Trinidad and Tobago," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(7), pages 2708-2716, July.
    5. Poshakwale, Sunil S. & Mandal, Anandadeep, 2016. "Determinants of asymmetric return comovements of gold and other financial assets," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 229-242.
    6. Awartani, Basel & Aktham, Maghyereh & Cherif, Guermat, 2016. "The connectedness between crude oil and financial markets: Evidence from implied volatility indices," Journal of Commodity Markets, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 56-69.
    7. Baruník, Jozef & Kočenda, Evžen & Vácha, Lukáš, 2016. "Gold, oil, and stocks: Dynamic correlations," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 186-201.
    8. AydIn, Levent & Acar, Mustafa, 2011. "Economic impact of oil price shocks on the Turkish economy in the coming decades: A dynamic CGE analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 1722-1731, March.
    9. Chkili, Walid, 2015. "Gold-oil prices co-movements and portfolio diversification implications," MPRA Paper 68110, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. repec:eee:jrpoli:v:52:y:2017:i:c:p:257-265 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. repec:rau:journl:v:12:y:2017:i:1:p:59-67 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Niaz Bashiri Behmiri & Matteo Manera & Marcella Nicolini, 2016. "Understanding Dynamic Conditional Correlations between Commodities Futures Markets," Working Papers 2016.17, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    13. Apergis, Nicholas & Eleftheriou, Sofia, 2016. "Gold returns: Do business cycle asymmetries matter? Evidence from an international country sample," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 164-170.
    14. Reboredo, Juan C., 2013. "Is gold a hedge or safe haven against oil price movements?," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 130-137.
    15. Ahmadi, Maryam & Bashiri Behmiri, Niaz & Manera, Matteo, 2016. "How is volatility in commodity markets linked to oil price shocks?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 11-23.
    16. Davide, Marinella & Vesco, Paola, 2016. "Alternative Approaches for Rating INDCs: a Comparative Analysis," MITP: Mitigation, Innovation,and Transformation Pathways 232716, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM).
    17. Le, Thai-Ha & Chang, Youngho, 2016. "Dynamics between strategic commodities and financial variables: Evidence from Japan," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 1-9.
    18. repec:cii:cepiei:2012-q3-131-4 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Balcilar, Mehmet & Abidin Ozdemir, Zeynel, 2017. "Does oil predict gold? A nonparametric causality-in-quantiles approach," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 257-265.
    20. Yaya, OlaOluwa S. & Tumala, Mohammed M. & Udomboso, Christopher G., 2016. "Volatility persistence and returns spillovers between oil and gold prices: Analysis before and after the global financial crisis," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 273-281.
    21. Walid Chkili, 2015. "Gold–oil prices co-movements and portfolio diversification implications," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 35(4), pages 2832-2845.

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    JEL classification:

    • F0 - International Economics - - General


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