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Computable Equilibrium Models and the Restructuring of the European Electricity and Gas Markets

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  • Yves Smeers

Abstract

More regulation, not less, is temporarily necessary, if effective, competition is to be established in network industries. This paradox places new requirements on computable models: they should provide realistic descriptions of technologies but also of markets and institutions. Industrial economics and computation of economic equilibrium can help achieve this dual requirement. This paper discusses their potential in the context of the deregulation of the European gas and electricity sectors. Some key elements of the European legislative process are first presented in order to point out the diversity of institutions that can emerge and to highlight the need to model institutions. Perfect competition equilibrium models although institutionally poor are argued to be useful for ex post analysis. Applications of the standard Cournot and' Bertrand paradigms in ex ante analysis of gas and electricity markets are reviewed next. Models combining market power and externalities are then discussed with reference to electricity restructuring. Finally multistage equilibrium models are introduced in the context of investment in gas and electricity. Computation remarks conclude the paper.

Suggested Citation

  • Yves Smeers, 1997. "Computable Equilibrium Models and the Restructuring of the European Electricity and Gas Markets," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4), pages 1-31.
  • Handle: RePEc:aen:journl:1997v18-04-a01
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    Cited by:

    1. Berry, Carolyn A. & Hobbs, Benjamin F. & Meroney, William A. & O'Neill, Richard P. & StewartJr, William R., 1999. "Understanding how market power can arise in network competition: a game theoretic approach," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 139-158, September.
    2. Banfi, Silvia & Filippini, Massimo & Mueller, Adrian, 2005. "An estimation of the Swiss hydropower rent," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(7), pages 927-937, May.
    3. Huppmann, Daniel & Egerer, Jonas, 2015. "National-strategic investment in European power transmission capacity," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 247(1), pages 191-203.
    4. Hauch, Jens, 2001. "The Danish electricity reform," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(7), pages 509-521, June.
    5. Paul Twomey & Richard Green & Karsten Neuhoff & David Newbery, 2005. "A Review of the Monitoring of Market Power: The Possible Roles of TSOs in Monitoring for Market Power Issues in Congested Transmission Systems," Working Papers 0502, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research.
    6. Möst, Dominik & Perlwitz, Holger, 2009. "Prospects of gas supply until 2020 in Europe and its relevance for the power sector in the context of emission trading," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 34(10), pages 1510-1522.
    7. Jan Abrell & Hannes Weigt, 2012. "Combining Energy Networks," Networks and Spatial Economics, Springer, vol. 12(3), pages 377-401, September.
    8. Weigt, Hannes, 2009. "A Review of Liberalization and Modeling of Electricity Markets," MPRA Paper 65651, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Florian Leuthold & Hannes Weigt & Christian Hirschhausen, 2012. "A Large-Scale Spatial Optimization Model of the European Electricity Market," Networks and Spatial Economics, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 75-107, March.
    10. Vespucci, Maria Teresa & Innorta, Mario & Cervigni, Guido, 2013. "A Mixed Integer Linear Programming model of a zonal electricity market with a dominant producer," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 35-41.
    11. Chyong, Chi Kong & Hobbs, Benjamin F., 2014. "Strategic Eurasian natural gas market model for energy security and policy analysis: Formulation and application to South Stream," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 198-211.
    12. Dorigoni, Susanna & Graziano, Clara & Pontoni, Federico, 2010. "Can LNG increase competitiveness in the natural gas market?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(12), pages 7653-7664, December.
    13. Leuthold, Florian & Weigt, Hannes & von Hirschhausen, Christian, 2008. "ELMOD - A Model of the European Electricity Market," MPRA Paper 65660, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Benjamin F. Hobbs & Fieke A.M. Rijkers & Maroeska G. Boots, 2005. "The More Cooperation, The More Competition? A Cournot Analysis of the Benefits of Electric Market Coupling," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4), pages 69-98.
    15. Rajnish Kamat & Shmuel Oren, 2004. "Two-settlement Systems for Electricity Markets under Network Uncertainty and Market Power," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 25(1), pages 5-37, January.
    16. Ventosa, Mariano & Baillo, Alvaro & Ramos, Andres & Rivier, Michel, 2005. "Electricity market modeling trends," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(7), pages 897-913, May.
    17. Neuhoff, Karsten & Barquin, Julian & Boots, Maroeska G. & Ehrenmann, Andreas & Hobbs, Benjamin F. & Rijkers, Fieke A.M. & Vazquez, Miguel, 2005. "Network-constrained Cournot models of liberalized electricity markets: the devil is in the details," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 495-525, May.
    18. Sulamaa, Pekka, . "Essays in Deregulated Finnish and Nordic Electricity Markets," ETLA A, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy, number 34.
    19. Rafal Weron, 2006. "Modeling and Forecasting Electricity Loads and Prices: A Statistical Approach," HSC Books, Hugo Steinhaus Center, Wroclaw University of Technology, number hsbook0601.
    20. Munksgaard, Jesper & Ramskov, Jacob, 2002. "Effects of internalising external production costs in a North European power market," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 501-510, May.
    21. Wolfgang, Ove & Haugstad, Arne & Mo, Birger & Gjelsvik, Anders & Wangensteen, Ivar & Doorman, Gerard, 2009. "Hydro reservoir handling in Norway before and after deregulation," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 34(10), pages 1642-1651.
    22. Bonacina, Monica & Gulli`, Francesco, 2007. "Electricity pricing under "carbon emissions trading": A dominant firm with competitive fringe model," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(8), pages 4200-4220, August.
    23. Breton, Michele & Zaccour, Georges, 2001. "Equilibria in an asymmetric duopoly facing a security constraint," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 457-475, July.
    24. Gnansounou, Edgard & Dong, Jun, 2004. "Opportunity for inter-regional integration of electricity markets: the case of Shandong and Shanghai in East China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(15), pages 1737-1751, October.
    25. Franziska Holz & Philipp M. Richter & Ruud Egging, 2013. "The Role of Natural Gas in a Low-Carbon Europe: Infrastructure and Regional Supply Security in the Global Gas Model," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1273, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.

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