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Publicly Funded R&D Collaborations and Patent Outcome in Germany

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  • Czarnitzki, Dirk
  • Fier, Andreas

Abstract

The stimulation of co-operations and networks has become very popular in R&D policies in recent years. This study examines the development and the impact of publicly funded R&D consortia in Germany. The paper describes the history of R&D funding in Germany with a focus on the development of measures encouraging collaborative R&D activities among firms and public research institutions. Due to a recent shift of policies to more competitive procedures in awarding public funds for R&D, we investigate empirically the impact of such measures on patenting activity at the firm level. The microeconometric results show that collaborating firms are more likely to patent than others. Within the group of collaborating firms, participants in publicly sponsored R&D consortia exhibit a higher propensity to patent than firms in non-sponsored networks. Especially SMEs seem to benefit from spillovers which makes their application for patents more likely. --

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research in its series ZEW Discussion Papers with number 03-24.

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Date of creation: 2003
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:1018

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Keywords: R&D; Public Subsidies; Collaboration; Policy Evaluation;

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References

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  1. Heckman, James J, 1979. "Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-61, January.
  2. Bronwyn H. Hall, Adam Jaffe and Manuel Trajtenberg., 2000. "Market Value and Patent Citations: A First Look," Economics Working Papers, University of California at Berkeley E00-277, University of California at Berkeley.
  3. Lerner, Josh, 1999. "The Government as Venture Capitalist: The Long-Run Impact of the SBIR Program," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 72(3), pages 285-318, July.
  4. Fier, Andreas & Harhoff, Dietmar, 2001. "Die Evolution der bundesdeutschen Forschungs- und Technologiepolitik: Rückblick und Bestandsaufnahme," ZEW Discussion Papers 01-61, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  5. Almus, Matthias & Czarnitzki, Dirk, 2001. "The effects of public R&D subsidies on firms' innovation activities: the case of Eastern Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 01-10, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  6. Kamien, Morton I & Muller, Eitan & Zang, Israel, 1992. "Research Joint Ventures and R&D Cartels," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 82(5), pages 1293-306, December.
  7. Czarnitzki, Dirk & Fier, Andreas, 2002. "Do Innovation Subsidies Crowd Out Private Investment? Evidence from the German Service Sector," ZEW Discussion Papers 02-04, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  8. Sakakibara, Mariko, 1997. "Evaluating government-sponsored R&D consortia in Japan: who benefits and how?," Research Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 26(4-5), pages 447-473, December.
  9. Kamien, Morton I. & Zang, Israel, 2000. "Meet me halfway: research joint ventures and absorptive capacity," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 18(7), pages 995-1012, October.
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  11. Bayona, Cristina & Garcia-Marco, Teresa & Huerta, Emilio, 2001. "Firms' motivations for cooperative R&D: an empirical analysis of Spanish firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 30(8), pages 1289-1307, October.
  12. Katsoulacos, Yannis & Ulph, David, 1998. "Endogenous Spillovers and the Performance of Research Joint Ventures," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(3), pages 333-57, September.
  13. Bruno Cassiman & Reinhilde Veugelers, 1998. "R&D cooperation and spillovers: Some empirical evidence," Economics Working Papers 328, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
  14. Link, Albert N. & Paton, David & Siegel, Donald S., 2002. "An analysis of policy initiatives to promote strategic research partnerships," Research Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 31(8-9), pages 1459-1466, December.
  15. Hagedoorn, John & Link, Albert N. & Vonortas, Nicholas S., 2000. "Research partnerships1," Research Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 29(4-5), pages 567-586, April.
  16. Heckman, James J & Ichimura, Hidehiko & Todd, Petra, 1998. "Matching as an Econometric Evaluation Estimator," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 65(2), pages 261-94, April.
  17. Audretsch, David B. & Link, Albert N. & Scott, John T., 2002. "Public/private technology partnerships: evaluating SBIR-supported research," Research Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 145-158, January.
  18. Czarnitzki, Dirk, 2001. "Die Auswirkung der Forschungs- und Technologiepolitik auf die Innovationsaktivitäten ostdeutscher Unternehmen," ZEW Discussion Papers 01-05, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Ebersberger, Bernd & Czarnitzki, Dirk & Fier, Andreas, 2004. "The Relationship between R&D Collaboration, Subsidies and Patenting Activity: Empirical Evidence from Finland and Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 04-37, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  2. Jaakko Simonen, 2005. "The innovativeness of the Finnish high technology firms – The role of internal factors, cooperation, and the mobility of labour," ERSA conference papers ersa05p462, European Regional Science Association.
  3. Katrin Hussinger, 2008. "R&D and subsidies at the firm level: an application of parametric and semiparametric two-step selection models," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(6), pages 729-747.
  4. Dirk Czarnitzki & Bernd Ebersberger & Andreas Fier, 2007. "The relationship between R&D collaboration, subsidies and R&D performance: Empirical evidence from Finland and Germany," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(7), pages 1347-1366.
  5. Bernhard Dachs & Bernd Ebersberger, 2009. "Does foreign ownership matter for the innovative activities of enterprises?," International Economics and Economic Policy, Springer, vol. 6(1), pages 41-57, June.
  6. Fier, Andreas & Heneric, Oliver, 2005. "Public R&D Policy: The Right Turns of the Wrong Screw? The Case of the German Biotechnology Industry," ZEW Discussion Papers 05-60, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  7. Fier, Andreas & Heger, Diana & Hussinger, Katrin, 2005. "Die Wirkungsanalyse staatlicher Förderprogramme durch den Einsatz von Matching- und Selektionsmodellen am Beispiel der Fertigungstechnik," ZEW Discussion Papers 05-09, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  8. Flavio Lenz-Cesar & Almas Heshmati, 2010. "Agent-based Simulation of Cooperative Innovation," TEMEP Discussion Papers 201052, Seoul National University; Technology Management, Economics, and Policy Program (TEMEP), revised Jan 2010.
  9. Hottenrott, Hanna & Lopes-Bento, Cindy, 2012. "Quantity or quality? Collaboration strategies in research and development and incentives to patent," ZEW Discussion Papers 12-047, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  10. Faria, Pedro & Schmidt, Tobias, 2007. "International Cooperation on Innovation: Empirical Evidence for German and Portuguese Firms," ZEW Discussion Papers 07-060, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  11. Bernhard Dachs & Bernd Ebersberger & Andreas Pyka, 2004. "Why do Firms Co-operate for Innovation? - A comparison of Austrian and Finnish CIS 3 results," Discussion Paper Series, Universitaet Augsburg, Institute for Economics 255, Universitaet Augsburg, Institute for Economics.
  12. Flavio Lenz-Cesar & Almas Heshmati, 2009. "Determinants of Firms Cooperation in Innovation," TEMEP Discussion Papers 200927, Seoul National University; Technology Management, Economics, and Policy Program (TEMEP), revised Nov 2009.

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