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Der Pfad in die Abhängigkeit? Eine kritische Bewertung institutionalistischer Beiträge in der Transformationsdebatte

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  • Bohle, Dorothee
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    Abstract

    Der Essay zielt auf eine kritische Bewertung des Beitrags institutionalistischer Ansätze in der sozioökonomischen Transformationsdebatte. Diese Ansätze interessieren sich für die konkreten Formen der entstehenden Kapitalismen in Osteuropa. Sie richten ihre Aufmerksamkeit auf die ererbten Organisationsformen und Institutionen und warnen vor möglichen Entwicklungsblockaden, wenn diesen in den Transformationsstrategien nicht Rechnung getragen wird. Damit leisten sie eine zentrale Kritik an den neoliberalen Reformen in Osteuropa und der ihnen zugrundeliegenden Annahme, daß unabhängig vom geschichtlichen und sozialen Ausgangspunkt einer konkreten Gesellschaft marktwirtschaftliche Basisinstitutionen Effizienz- und Wohlfahrtsgewinne zeitigen. In dem Papier wird jedoch argumentiert, daß die institutionalistische Kritik zu kurz greift, da sie eine wesentliche Determinante der entstehenden osteuropäischen Kapitalismen vernachlässigt, nämlich ihre forcierte Integration in die Weltwirtschaft. Dieser „blinde Fleck“ zieht eine Reihe weiterer Probleme nach sich. Institutionalistische Ansätze setzten sich für politische Strategien im nationalstaatlichen Rahmen zu einem historischen Zeitpunkt ein, in dem nationalstaatliche Entwicklungskonzepte durch neoliberale Transnationalisierung zunehmend in Frage gestellt werden. Institutionalisten tendieren dazu, die Bandbreite der zur Verfügung stehenden nationalen Strategien zu überschätzen und die ihnen durch westliche Regimeziele und machtvolle globale Akteure auferlegten „constraints“ zu unterschätzen. Durch ihren Fokus auf die historische Erbschaft tendieren sie dazu, Phänomene und Institutionen als osteuropäische Spezifika zu konzeptualisieren, die nur transitorische Phänomene sind. Das Papier endet mit einem Plädoyer, auch in der Transformationsforschung nach den Verbindungsmustern zwischen externen und internen Entwicklungsprozessen zu suchen, und, über diese duale Sichtweise hinausgehend, eine Forschungsperspektive zu entwickeln, die stärker die neuartige, transnationale Form des gegenwärtigen Kapitalismus in den Blick nimmt. -- The aim of this essay is to assess the contribution of institutionalist approaches in the socio-economic transformation debate. These approaches focus on the concrete historical forms of emerging capitalisms in Eastern Europe. By emphasising the role of inherited organisations and institutions in the transformation process and by warning against possible blockages and lock-ins due to these factors, institutionalist approaches provide a powerful criticism of the neoliberal reforms and the underlying assumption that, no matter when in history and where in social geography, the presence of core market institutions predicts welfare and efficiency. However, institutionalists tend to neglect the problem of how integration into the world economy shapes the restructuring of Eastern European political economies and their prospects. This neglect results in a number of further shortcomings. Path dependentists argue for policy strategies tailored to national pathways at the very historical period when national autonomy is being increasingly questioned through the ongoing processes of neoliberal transnationalisation. When referring to policy choices, path-dependency approaches tend to overestimate the actually attainable range of systemic diversity and to underestimate the constraints imposed by Western regime goals and powerful global actors. By concentrating on the past and origins, path dependentists run the risk of conceptualising phenomena and institutions as building blocks of new capitalisms which prove to be transitory. The paper ends by arguing for a research perspective which elaborates on the relationship and interaction between the external and internal dimension of transformation and ultimately arrives at a more proper understanding of the new transnational form of contemporary capitalism.

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    Paper provided by Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB) in its series Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Organization and Employment with number FS I 99-103.

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    Date of creation: 1999
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:wzboem:fsi99103

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    1. Ruggie, John Gerard, 1993. "Territoriality and beyond: problematizing modernity in international relations," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 47(01), pages 139-174, December.
    2. Murrell, Peter, 1992. " Evolutionary and Radical Approaches to Economic Reform," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 25(1), pages 79-95.
    3. Boyer, Robert, 1993. "Grande transformation de l'europe de l'est (la). une lecture régulationniste," CEPREMAP Working Papers (Couverture Orange) 9319, CEPREMAP.
    4. Peter Murrell, 1991. "Can Neoclassical Economics Underpin the Reform of Centrally Planned Economies?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 5(4), pages 59-76, Fall.
    5. Peter Murrell, 1995. "The Transition According to Cambridge, Mass," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 33(1), pages 164-178, March.
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