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Die sozialen Klassen im ethnisch heterogenen Milieu: Ein soziologischer Ansatz zur Erklärung der Unterschiede der Einkommensverteilung in den Ländern der Welt

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  • Haller, Max
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    Abstract

    Die Einkommensverteilung innerhalb der verschiedenen Länder der Welt weist enorme Unterschiede auf. Diese Form der Ungleichheit bleibt im Zeitalter der Globalisierung zentral, da auf der Ebene des Staates die relevanten politischen Entscheidungen getroffen werden; die intranationale Ungleichheit nimmt neuerdings zu, während jene zwischen den Nationen kleiner wird. Es wird ein soziologischer Ansatz entwickelt, der ausgeht von der These, dass die Interaktion zwischen Klassenbildung/Schichtung und ethnischer Differenzierung entscheidend für die innerstaatliche Ungleichheit des Einkommens ist. Sie explodiert geradezu, wenn sich eine ethnische Klassenschichtung herausgebildet hat, d.h. soziale Klassen auch ethnisch voneinander differenziert sind. Anknüpfend an die Weber'sche Idee der Soziologie als Wirklichkeitswissenschaft wird argumentiert, dass die Vielfalt und Komplexität der Formen ethnischer Schichtung am besten dadurch zu erfassen ist, dass idealtypische Strategien und Schichtungsmuster herausgearbeitet werden, die in verschiedenen Regionen und Kulturen der Welt entwickelt worden sind. Dabei werden drei Grundformen unterschieden: Strategien zur Bewahrung bzw. Wiederherstellung ethnischer Homogenität, Strategien zur Kontrolle der Herausbildung ethnischer Heterogenität, und Strategien zur Etablierung der Herrschaft von Ethnoklassen. Im Lichte dieser Typologie finden die internationalen Differenzen in den nationalen Einkommensverteilungen eine plausible Erklärung. -- Income inequality differs tremendously across the countries of the world. It remains central even in the age of globalisation because most relevant political decisions are still made on the national level. In recent years, within-country inequalities have risen, while inequalities among nations have decreased. This paper argues that intra-national inequality of income is decisively shaped by the interaction between class formation/stratification and ethnic differentiation. This inequality is greatly exacerbated if an ethnic class stratification has evolved, i.e. if social class differences coincide with ethnic differences. Following Weber's idea of sociology as a science of reality it is argued that the diversity and complexity of types of ethnic stratification can best be grasped by defining ideal-typical strategies and stratification patterns that have developed in different regions and cultures of the world. Three basic types are distinguished: strategies for the preservation or restoration of ethnic homogeneity, strategies to control the formation of ethnic heterogeneity, and strategies to establish the rule of ethno classes. Country differences in income inequality can be plausibly explained using this typology.

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    Paper provided by Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB) in its series Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Inequality and Social Integration with number SP I 2011-210.

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    Date of creation: 2011
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:wzbisi:spi2011210

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    1. Ulrich Kohler & Frauke Kreuter, 2009. "Data Analysis using Stata, 2nd Edition," Stata Press books, StataCorp LP, number daus2, March.
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