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Mehrebenenpolitik im vollendeten Binnenmarkt


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  • Scharpf, Fritz W.
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    In der Europäischen Gemeinschaft wird die Problemlösungsfähigkeit der Mitgliedstaaten durch die Rechtsregeln der negativen Integration beschränkt,´welche nationale Maßnahmen ausschließen, die als Handelshindernisse oder Wettbewerbsverzerrung interpretiert werden können. Diese Regeln werden innerhalb des Rechtssystems formuliert und ohne Legitimationsprobleme effektiv durchgesetzt. Dagegen leidet die von der europäischen Politik erwartete positive Integration unter Legitimationsdefiziten und wird nach wie vor durchhohe Konsenserfordernisse im Ministerrat begrenzt. Diese treffen in erster Linie die prozeßbezogenen oder standortbezogenen Maßnahmen einer europäischen Sozialpolitik oder Umweltpolitik, während bei den produktbezogenenRegelungen das gemeinsame Interesse aller Mitgliedstaaten am Zugang zum größeren europäischen Markt die Einigung erleichtert. Als Folge dieser Asymmetrie zwischen effektiver negativer Integration und begrenzter positiver Integration hat die Politik in Europa heute im Vergleich zu den Nachkriegsjahrzehnten eine geringere Fähigkeit zur sozialstaatlichen und ökologischen Zivilisierung der kapitalistischen Ökonomie. Der Aufsatz erörtert Möglichkeiten einer Steigerung der politischen Problemlösungsfähigkeit auf der europäischen wie auf der nationalstaatlichen Ebene. -- In the European Community, the problem-solving capacity of member states has been reduced through legal rules of negative integration which preclude national measures that could be interpreted as restrictions of free trade or distortions of competition. These rules are formulated and enforced within the legal system, and without the need for political legitimation. By contrast, the positive integration that is expected from the political institutions of the Community is suffering from increasingly serious problems of political legitimacy and it continues to be constrained by very high consensus requirements in the Council of Ministers. These affect primarily process related measures of European social policy and environmental policy, while agreement on product related regulations is facilitated by the common interest of all member states in gaining access to the larger European market. As a result of this asymmetry between effective negative integration and constrained positive integration, the process of European unification has reduced the capacity of governments at all levels to impose social and ecological constraints on the capitalist economy. The article discusses several options that could to some extent increase the problem solving capacity of governments at the European and at the national levels.

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    Paper provided by Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies in its series MPIfG Discussion Paper with number 94/4.

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    Date of creation: 1994
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:mpifgd:p0032

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    1. J.H.H. Weiler, 1993. "Journey to an Unknown Destination: A Retrospective and Prospective of the European Court of Justice in the Arena of Political Integration," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(4), pages 417-446, December.
    2. Giandomenico Majone, 1993. "The European Community Between Social Policy and Social Regulation," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(2), pages 153-170, 06.
    3. Burley, Anne-Marie & Mattli, Walter, 1993. "Europe Before the Court: A Political Theory of Legal Integration," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 47(01), pages 41-76, December.
    4. Scharpf, Fritz W., 1993. "Autonomieschonend und gemeinschaftsverträglich: Zur Logik der europäischen Mehrebenenpolitik," MPIfG Discussion Paper 93/9, Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies.
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    Cited by:
    1. Gawel, Erik & Strunz, Sebastian & Lehmann, Paul, 2014. "Wie viel Europa braucht die Energiewende?," UFZ Discussion Papers 4/2014, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ), Division of Social Sciences (ÖKUS).


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