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Wie die Europäische Kommission Liberalisierung durchsetzt: Der Konflikt um das öffentlich-rechtliche Bankenwesen in Deutschland

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  • Seikel, Daniel
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    Abstract

    Während der Finanzkrise beherrschten ausgerechnet öffentliche deutsche Landesbanken die Schlagzeilen. Eine Ursache für die Verwicklung der Landesbanken in die Finanzkrise ist die Liberalisierung des deutschen öffentlich-rechtlichen Bankenwesens durch die Europäische Kommission. Der Erfolg der Liberalisierungsbefürworter ist umso erstaunlicher, da die EU-Mitgliedstaaten ursprünglich nicht vorgesehen - und vorhergesehen - haben, dass das europäische Recht als ein Hebel für die Veränderung nationaler Finanzsysteme dienen würde. Wie konnte sich die Kommission gegen den entschlossenen Widerstand Deutschlands durchsetzen und so den Vorrang des europäischen Wettbewerbsrechts über vormals der nationalstaatlichen Regulierung vorbehaltene Bereiche etablieren? Dieser Artikel geht der Frage nach, warum sich die supranationale Dynamik selbst in hoch umstrittenen Fällen gegen die intergouvernementale Logik durchsetzt. In der Auseinandersetzung um deutsche öffentlich-rechtliche Banken hat die Kommission ihre wettbewerbsrechtlichen Kompetenzen mit politischen Strategien kombiniert, die auf die Interessenunterschiede innerhalb der Verteidigerkoalition zielten. So hat die Kommission nicht nur die Rückfallposition der Verteidiger verschoben, sondern auch deren Reihen entzweit: Zuvor nicht handlungsrelevante Interessenunterschiede brechen auf, die einstmals geschlossene Koalition der Verteidiger zerbricht. Der Fall veranschaulicht, wie die Kommission auch gegen den Willen der Mitgliedstaaten eigene politische Präferenzen durchsetzen kann. -- During the recent financial crisis, German public banks dominated the headlines. Their surprisingly deep involvement can be attributed to the liberalization of the German public banking system by the European Commission. The success of the proponents of the liberalization is notable because the Member states never intended for European law to have enough leverage to alter core elements of national financial systems. How could the Commission prevail over fierce national resistance and impose the primacy of European competition law over areas formerly exclusively subjected to national regulations? This paper examines why the supranational dynamic is superior to the intergovernmental logic. During the conflict over the liberalization of German public banks, the Commission combined its legal competences with political strategies that aimed at diverging interests within the coalition of defenders. Thus, the Commission not only shifted the default position of the defenders but also disunited their ranks: Formerly irrelevant differences of interest become relevant, the previously united coalition of defenders breaks up. The case illustrates how the Commission is able to impose its political preferences even against the will of the Member States.

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    Paper provided by Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies in its series MPIfG Discussion Paper with number 11/16.

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    Date of creation: 2011
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:mpifgd:1116

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