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Strukturwandel im baltischen Lebensmittelhandel


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  • Kielyte, Julda


Im zentralplanwirtschaftlichen System der ehemaligen Sowjetunion war der Einzel-und Großhandel stark vernachlässigt. In den Transformationsjahren nahm sein Beitrag sowohl gemessen an seinem Anteil am BIP als auch anhand der Zahl der Beschäftigten erheblich zu. Das Ziel dieses Diskussionspapiers ist es, die Entwicklung der Strukturen im baltischen Lebensmittelhandel zu analysieren. Besonderes Interesse gilt dabei den Veränderungen der Betriebs- und Organisationsformen sowie der Marktstruktur. Die Umstrukturierung der Wirtschaft hatte erhebliche Veränderungen im baltischen Lebensmittelhandel zur Folge. Zu Reformbeginn führte die Privatisierung und zahlreiche Neugründungen zu einer Zersplitterung des Lebensmittelhandels. Leichte Teilbarkeit der zu privatisierenden Handelsbetriebe sowie mangelnde Kapitalverfügbarkeit der neuen Unternehmer hatte zur Folge, dass vor allem kleine (Familien-)Betriebe gegründet wurden. Seit 1996 sind zunehmende Konzentrationstendenzen zu beobachten. Durch die Modernisierung innovativer inländischen Unternehmen und dem Engagement westlicher Handelsorganisationen hat sich der Wettbewerbsdruck auf dem baltischen Lebensmittelmarkt stark erhöht. Die Dynamik des Wettbewerbs zeigt sich anhand zahlreicher Markteintritte (westlicher Handelsketten) und -austritte (unrentabler heimischer Unternehmen) sowie anhand zunehmender Konzentration von Marktanteilen bei größeren Unternehmen. Diese Entwicklungen lassen eine Erhöhung der Effizienz im baltischen Lebensmittelhandel erwarten. -- E N G L I S H V E R S I O N: In the centrally planned economy of the former Soviet Union, retail and wholesale trade were very much neglected. Since the beginning of transition the share of trade has increased considerably both in terms of its contribution to national product and employment. This paper analyses the structural development in the food retail sector of the Baltic states since the beginning of transition. It focuses mainly on the organisational changes, and change of the forms of enterprises as well as on changes in market structure in the Baltic food retail trade. The transformation of the economy has resulted in substantial changes in the Baltic food retail sector. At the beginning of reformation privatisation and establishment of numerous new forms has led to fragmentation in the food retail trade. Easy divisibility of trade enterprises included into privatisations as well as the lack of capital for new entrepreneurs are the major reason for the creation of mostly small (family) enterprises. However, from 1996 an increased tendency to concentration can be observed. Competition on the Baltic food market has intensified due to the modernisation of innovative domestic enterprises and appearance of western trading organisations. The dynamics of the competition becomes obvious by numerous market entrances (western trade concerns) and exits (of unprofitable domestic enterprises) as well as by an increased concentration of larger enterprises. This development allows to expect an efficiency increase in the Baltic food trade.

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Paper provided by Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe (IAMO) in its series IAMO Discussion Papers with number 33.

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Date of creation: 2001
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:iamodp:14916

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Keywords: Lebensmittelhandel; Baltische Länder; Strukturwandel; Transformation; Food retailing and wholesaling; Baltic States; Structural Changes; Transition;

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  1. Hossain, Ferdaus & Jensen, Helen H., 2000. "Lithuania's Food Demand During Economic Transition," Staff General Research Papers 1715, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  2. Girgzdiene, Vilija, 1999. "Industrial organisation of the food industry in Lithuania: results of an expert survey in the dairy and sugar branch," IAMO Discussion Papers 21, Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe (IAMO).
  3. Schrader, Klaus & Laaser, Claus-Friedrich, 1994. "Die baltischen Staaten auf dem Weg nach Europa : Lehren aus der Süderweiterung der EG," Open Access Publications from Kiel Institute for the World Economy 819, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
  4. Howard Smith, 2004. "Supermarket Choice and Supermarket Competition in Market�Equilibrium," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 71(1), pages 235-263, 01.
  5. Jasjko, Danute, 1999. "Industrial organisation of the food industry in Latvia: results of an expert survey in the dairy and milling branches," IAMO Discussion Papers 22, Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe (IAMO).
  6. Borrmann, Christine & Plötz, Peter & Polkowski, Andreas, 1999. "Wirtschaftslage und Reformprozesse in Mittel- und Osteuropa: Estland - Lettland - Litauen," HWWA Reports 193, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
  7. Hossain, Ferdaus & Jensen, Helen H., 2000. "Lithuania's food demand during economic transition," Agricultural Economics: The Journal of the International Association of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 23(1), June.
  8. Dirk Pilat, 1997. "Regulation and Performance in the Distribution Sector," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 180, OECD Publishing.
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Cited by:
  1. James Anderson, 2001. "Migration, FDI, and the Margins of Trade," EERI Research Paper Series EERI_RP_2001_05, Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI), Brussels.


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