Average and quantile treatment effects of the American Folic Acid Fortification: an evaluation in a quasi-experimental framework
AbstractThe American program of folic acid fortification is generally thought to have increased the average amount of serum folate in the population and, hence, widely considered as a successful public health intervention. We use several waves of the â€œNational Health and Nutrition Examination Surveyâ€ (NHANES) to evaluate the causal impact of the fortification of ready-to-eat cereals on serum folate concentration, using a quasi experimental framework. First, we compute the average treatment effect by using matching methods to solve the problem of selection on observables, finding a strong selection into treatment mainly based on race-ethnicity and education. Second, we assess the distributional impact of the fortification by computing quantile treatment effects, under different assumptions on the dependence between the distributions of potential outcomes, and we find significant variation in the impact of fortification across the population, thus rejecting the common effects model. Fortification appears to have had the least (though still modestly beneficial) impact among those that most needed it and the biggest impact among those that needed it least, thus suggesting the presence of folate over-consumption in the latter group, with potential adverse health effects. Third, by controlling our estimates for the concentration of beta-carotene, we find support for the hypothesis that part of the increase in serum folate concentration can be explained by changes in diet, leaving a smaller attributable effect to the fortification itself.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by HEDG, c/o Department of Economics, University of York in its series Health, Econometrics and Data Group (HEDG) Working Papers with number 12/08.
Date of creation: May 2012
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: HEDG/HERC, Department of Economics and Related Studies, University of York, York, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom
Phone: (0)1904 323776
Fax: (0)1904 323759
Web page: http://www.york.ac.uk/res/herc/research/hedg/
More information through EDIRC
Folic acid fortification; quantile treatment effect; matching; policy evaluation;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- C21 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models
- I12 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health Production
- I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2012-06-25 (All new papers)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Markus Frolich & Blaise Melly, 2010. "Estimation of quantile treatment effects with Stata," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 10(3), pages 423-457, September.
- Marianne P. Bitler & Jonah B. Gelbach & Hilary W. Hoynes, 2003.
"What Mean Impacts Miss: Distributional Effects of Welfare Reform Experiments,"
109, RAND Corporation Publications Department.
- Marianne P. Bitler & Jonah B. Gelbach & Hilary W. Hoynes, 2006. "What Mean Impacts Miss: Distributional Effects of Welfare Reform Experiments," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(4), pages 988-1012, September.
- Marianne Bitler & Jonah Gelbach & Hilary Hoynes, 2003. "What Mean Impacts Miss: Distributional Effects of Welfare Reform Experiments," NBER Working Papers 10121, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bitler, Marianne P. & Gelbach, Jonah B. & Hoynes, Hilary W., 2005. "What Mean Impacts Miss: Distributional Effects of Welfare Reform Experiments," IZA Discussion Papers 1728, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Hilary W. Hoynes & Marianne P Bitler & Jonah Gelbach, 2005. "What Mean Impacts Miss:Distributional Effects of Welfare Reform Experiments," Working Papers 531, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jane Rawlings).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.