Empirical evidence on the incentives to hedge transaction and translation exposure
AbstractWe investigate Swedish firms’ use of financial hedges to reduce their foreign exchange exposure for 1997–2001. The study uses survey data, which enables us to differentiate between hedging aimed at translation exposure and transaction exposure, respectively. The survey responses show that more than 50% of the firms employ financial hedges and that transaction exposure is more frequently hedged than translation exposure. We find that the likelihood of using financial hedges is increasing with firm size and exposure and that liquidity constraints are important in explaining transaction exposure hedging. Importantly, we find that the existence of loan covenants explains translation exposure hedging. This suggests that firms hedge translation exposure in order to prevent costly violations of loan covenants.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by EconWPA in its series Finance with number 0407020.
Length: 27 pages
Date of creation: 28 Jul 2004
Date of revision:
Note: Type of Document - pdf; pages: 27
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://184.108.40.206
Risk management; hedging; foreign exchange exposure; transaction exposure; translation exposure; loan covenants; bond covenants;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
- F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange
- G39 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Other
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Core, John E. & Schrand, Catherine M., 1999. "The effect of accounting-based debt covenants on equity valuation1," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 1-34, February.
- Marston, Richard C., 2001. "The effects of industry structure on economic exposure," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 149-164, April.
- Froot, Kenneth A & Scharfstein, David S & Stein, Jeremy C, 1993.
" Risk Management: Coordinating Corporate Investment and Financing Policies,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 48(5), pages 1629-58, December.
- Kenneth A. Froot & David S. Scharfstein & Jeremy C. Stein, 1992. "Risk Management: Coordinating Corporate Investment and Financing Policies," NBER Working Papers 4084, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Mian, Shehzad L., 1996. "Evidence on Corporate Hedging Policy," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 31(03), pages 419-439, September.
- Cragg, John G, 1971. "Some Statistical Models for Limited Dependent Variables with Application to the Demand for Durable Goods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 39(5), pages 829-44, September.
- Smith, Clifford W. & Stulz, René M., 1985. "The Determinants of Firms' Hedging Policies," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(04), pages 391-405, December.
- Hayne E. Leland., 1994.
"Corporate Debt Value, Bond Covenants, and Optimal Capital Structure,"
Research Program in Finance Working Papers
RPF-233, University of California at Berkeley.
- Leland, Hayne E, 1994. " Corporate Debt Value, Bond Covenants, and Optimal Capital Structure," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(4), pages 1213-52, September.
- Smith, Clifford Jr. & Warner, Jerold B., 1979. "On financial contracting : An analysis of bond covenants," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 117-161, June.
- John R. Graham & Daniel A. Rogers, 2002. "Do Firms Hedge in Response to Tax Incentives?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(2), pages 815-839, 04.
- Henk Berkman & Michael E. Bradbury, 1996. "Empirical Evidence on the Corporate Use of Derivatives," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 25(2), Summer.
- Geczy, Christopher & Minton, Bernadette A & Schrand, Catherine, 1997. " Why Firms Use Currency Derivatives," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(4), pages 1323-54, September.
- Niclas Hagelin, 2003. "Why firms hedge with currency derivatives: an examination of transaction and translation exposure," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(1), pages 55-69.
- Roberts, Gordon S & Viscione, Jerry A, 1984. " The Impact of Seniority and Security Covenants on Bond Yields: A Note," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(5), pages 1597-1602, December.
- Gerald D. Gay & Jouahn Nam, 1998. "The Underinvestment Problem and Corporate Derivatives Use," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 27(4), Winter.
- John D. Knopf & Jouahn Nam & John H. Thornton Jr., 2002. "The Volatility and Price Sensitivities of Managerial Stock Option Portfolios and Corporate Hedging," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(2), pages 801-813, 04.
- Pramborg, Bengt, 2005. "Foreign exchange risk management by Swedish and Korean nonfinancial firms: A comparative survey," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 343-366, June.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (EconWPA).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.