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Does Hedging Affect Firm Value? Evidence from the US Airline Industry

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  • David A. Carter
  • Daniel A. Rogers
  • Betty J. Simkins
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    Abstract

    Does hedging add value to the firm, and if so, is the source of the added value consistent with hedging theory? We investigate jet fuel hedging behavior of firms in the US airline industry during 1992-2003 to examine whether such hedging is a source of value for these companies. We illustrate that the investment and financing climate in the airline industry conforms well to the theoretical framework of Froot, Scharfstein, and Stein (1993). In general, airline industry investment opportunities correlate positively with jet fuel costs, while higher fuel costs are consistent with lower cash flow. Given that jet fuel costs are hedgeable, airlines with a desire for expansion may find value in hedging future purchases of jet fuel. Our results show that jet fuel hedging is positively related to airline firm value. The coefficients on the hedging variables in our regression analysis suggest that the "hedging premium" is greater than the 5% documented in Allayannis and Weston (2001), and might be as large as 10%. We find that the positive relation between hedging and value increases in capital investment, and that most of the hedging premium is attributable to the interaction of hedging with investment. This result is consistent with the assertion that the principal benefit of jet fuel hedging by airlines comes from reduction of underinvestment costs. Copyright (c) 2006 Financial Management Association International.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Financial Management Association International in its journal Financial Management.

    Volume (Year): 35 (2006)
    Issue (Month): 1 (03)
    Pages: 53-86

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    Handle: RePEc:bla:finmgt:v:35:y:2006:i:1:p:53-86

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    Cited by:
    1. Monda, Barbara & Giorgino, Marco & Modolin, Ileana, 2013. "Rationales for Corporate Risk Management - A Critical Literature Review," MPRA Paper 45420, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Adams, Zeno & Gerner, Mathias, 2012. "Cross hedging jet-fuel price exposure," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 1301-1309.
    3. Gay, Gerald D. & Lin, Chen-Miao & Smith, Stephen D., 2011. "Corporate derivatives use and the cost of equity," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 1491-1506, June.
    4. Mohamed Mnasri & Georges Dionne & Jean-Pierre Gueyie, 2013. "The Maturity Structure of Corporate Hedging: the Case of the U.S. Oil and Gas Industry," Cahiers de recherche 1337, CIRPEE.
    5. Cornaggia, Jess, 2013. "Does risk management matter? Evidence from the U.S. agricultural industry," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(2), pages 419-440.
    6. Fauver, Larry & Naranjo, Andy, 2010. "Derivative usage and firm value: The influence of agency costs and monitoring problems," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 719-735, December.
    7. Choi, Jongmoo Jay & Jiang, Cao, 2009. "Does multinationality matter? Implications of operational hedging for the exchange risk exposure," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(11), pages 1973-1982, November.
    8. Giorgio Stefano Bertinetti & Elisa Cavezzali & Gloria Gardenal, 2013. "The effect of the enterprise risk management implementation on the firm value of European companies," Working Papers 10, Department of Management, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia.
    9. Eckles, David L. & Hoyt, Robert E. & Miller, Steve M., 2014. "The impact of enterprise risk management on the marginal cost of reducing risk: Evidence from the insurance industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 247-261.
    10. Bahram Adrangi & Richard D. Gritta & Kambiz Raffiee, 2013. "Volatility Spillovers and Nonlinear Dynamics between Jet Fuel Prices and Air Carrier Revenue Passenger Miles in the US," Review of Economics & Finance, Better Advances Press, Canada, vol. 3, pages 01-18, August.
    11. Allayannis, George & Lel, Ugur & Miller, Darius P., 2012. "The use of foreign currency derivatives, corporate governance, and firm value around the world," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 65-79.
    12. Lookman, Aziz A., 2009. "Bank borrowing and corporate risk management," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 632-649, October.
    13. Brian Lucey & Britta Berghöfer, 2013. "Fuel Hedging, Operational Hedging and Risk Exposure– Evidence from the Global Airline Industry," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp433, IIIS.
    14. Rampini, Adriano A. & Sufi, Amir & Viswanathan, S., 2014. "Dynamic risk management," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 111(2), pages 271-296.

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