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Determinants of welfare entry and exit by young women

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  • M. Klawitter
  • R. Plotnick
  • M. Edwards
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    Abstract

    Using data from the youngest cohorts of women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study constructs AFDC histories starting at age 15. Most young women go on AFDC for the first time between ages 18 and 25 and do so in the first few years after the birth of their first baby. We use these histories to estimate models of the determinants of initial use of AFDC and of the rate of exit from the first AFDC spell. The models show little evidence that welfare benefits affect the likelihood and timing of AFDC use, except that higher Medicaid benefits are associated with slower rates of exit from an initial AFDC spell. Parental welfare receipt, the home educational environment, family structure, academic achievement, attitudes toward school, and race are significantly related to the likelihood of participating in AFDC and the rate of entry and exit.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty in its series Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers with number 1099-96.

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    Handle: RePEc:wop:wispod:1099-96

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    1. Robert Plotnick, 1983. "Turnover in the AFDC Population: An Event History Analysis," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 18(1), pages 65-81.
    2. Gary Solon & Mary Corcoran & Roger H. Gordon & Deborah Laren, 1987. "Sibling and Intergenerational Correlations in Welfare Program Participation," NBER Working Papers 2334, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Gottschalk, Peter & Moffitt, Robert A, 1994. "Welfare Dependence: Concepts, Measures, and Trends," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 84(2), pages 38-42, May.
    4. Moffitt, Robert, 1983. "An Economic Model of Welfare Stigma," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 73(5), pages 1023-35, December.
    5. Hoynes, Hilary & MaCurdy, Thomas, 1994. "Has the Decline in Benefits Shortened Welfare Spells?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 84(2), pages 43-48, May.
    6. Greg Duncan & Saul Hoffman, 1990. "Welfare benefits, economic opportunities, and out-of-wedlock births among black teenage girls," Demography, Springer, Springer, vol. 27(4), pages 519-535, November.
    7. Blank, Rebecca M., 1989. "Analyzing the length of welfare spells," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 245-273, August.
    8. Lane, Julia & Stevens, David, 1995. "Family, Work, and Welfare History: Work and Welfare Outcomes," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 85(2), pages 266-70, May.
    9. O'Neill, June A & Bassi, Laurie J & Wolf, Douglas A, 1987. "The Duration of Welfare Spells," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 69(2), pages 241-48, May.
    10. Sara McLanahan, 1988. "Family structure and dependency: Early transitions to female household headship," Demography, Springer, Springer, vol. 25(1), pages 1-16, February.
    11. John M. Fitzgerald, 1995. "Local labor markets and local area effects on welfare duration," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(1), pages 43-67.
    12. Blank, Rebecca M & Ruggles, Patricia, 1994. "Short-Term Recidivism among Public-Assistance Recipients," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 84(2), pages 49-53, May.
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