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The Employment of Women in the European Union

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  • Gudrun Biffl

    (WIFO)

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    Abstract

    The increasing employment of women in Europe is not only a result of economic restructuring, but also a consequence of changing family structures, changing expectations, changing wage determination mechanisms and increasing urbanisation. Many of the services which have been outsourced from the household sector to the market sector tend to remain almost exclusively a female employment domain. Thus, the areas of production that constitute the domain of female work in traditional societies remain the same in the developed industrial societies; only the degree of marketisation differs. The extent to which domestic work is outsourced depends upon the welfare model. Thus, it is a different set of taxes, transfer payments and public services in the various models which impacts on the relative efficiency and direct and indirect costs of goods and services which can be produced in the household or the market sector. Different institutional settings impact on the opportunity cost of domestic work and/or the shadow price of the domestic good or service, resulting in a divergence of the employment rate of women between the various models in the EU.

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    File URL: http://www.wifo.ac.at/wwa/pubid/29578
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by WIFO in its series WIFO Working Papers with number 297.

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    Length: 27 pages
    Date of creation: 06 Jul 2007
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:wfo:wpaper:y:2007:i:297

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    Related research

    Keywords: Employment rates; models of social organisation; marketisation of household production; time use surveys; gender segregation;

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    References

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    1. Richard B. Freeman & Ronald Schettkat, 2002. "Marketization of Production and the US-Europe Employment Gap," NBER Working Papers 8797, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Andrea Bassanini & Stefano Scarpetta & Philip Hemmings, 2001. "Economic Growth: The Role of Policies and Institutions: Panel Data. Evidence from OECD Countries," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 283, OECD Publishing.
    3. Andrea Brandolini & Anthony B. Atkinson, 2001. "Promise and Pitfalls in the Use of "Secondary" Data-Sets: Income Inequality in OECD Countries As a Case Study," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 39(3), pages 771-799, September.
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    Cited by:
    1. Gudrun Biffl, 2008. "The Promotion of Employment and Earning Opportunity of Women in Europe through Gender Mainstreaming. With Special Emphasis on Austria," WIFO Working Papers 319, WIFO.

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