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Agency, education and networks : gender and international migration from Albania

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  • Stecklov, Guy
  • Carletto, Calogero
  • Azzarri, Carlo
  • Davis, Benjamin

Abstract

This paper examines the causes and dynamics of the shift in the gender composition of migration, and more particularly, in the access of women to migration opportunities and decision making. The context of the analysis is Albania, a natural laboratory for studying migration developments given that out-migration was practically eliminated from the end of World War II to the end of the 1980s. The authors use micro-level data from the Albania 2005 Living Standards Measurement Study including migration histories for family members since migration began. Based on discrete-time hazard models, the analysis shows an impressive expansion of female participation in international migration. Female migration, which is shown to be strongly associated with education, wealth, and social capital, appears responsive to economic incentives and constraints. Yet, using unique data on the dependency of female migration to the household demographic structure as well as the sensitivity of female migration to household-level shocks, the authors show that it is the households themselves that are the decision-making agents behind this economic calculus and there is little to suggest that increased female migration signals the emergence of female agency.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 4507.

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Date of creation: 01 Feb 2008
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:4507

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Keywords: Population Policies; Anthropology; Human Rights; Voluntary and Involuntary Resettlement; Human Migrations&Resettlements;

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  1. Marcela Cerrutti & Douglas Massey, 2001. "On the auspices of female migration from Mexico to the United States," Demography, Springer, Springer, vol. 38(2), pages 187-200, May.
  2. Winters, Paul C. & Davis, Benjamin, 2000. "Gender, Networks and Mexico-U.S. Migration," Working Papers, University of New England, School of Economics 12901, University of New England, School of Economics.
  3. Paul Winters & Alain de Janvry & Elisabeth Sadoulet, 2001. "Family and Community Networks in Mexico-U.S. Migration," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 36(1), pages 159-184.
  4. David Mckenzie & Hillel Rapoport, 2004. "Network Effects and the Dynamics of Migration and Inequality: Theory and Evidence from Mexico," Working Papers, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics 2004-3, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics.
  5. Kaivan Munshi, 2003. "Networks In The Modern Economy: Mexican Migrants In The U.S. Labor Market," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 118(2), pages 549-599, May.
  6. Rosenzweig, Mark R. & Stark, Oded, 1987. "Consumption Smoothing, Migration and Marriage: Evidence from Rural India," Bulletins, University of Minnesota, Economic Development Center 7515, University of Minnesota, Economic Development Center.
  7. Sara Curran & Estela Rivero-Fuentes, 2003. "Engendering migrant networks: The case of Mexican migration," Demography, Springer, Springer, vol. 40(2), pages 289-307, May.
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