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Informal export barriers and poverty

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  • Porto, Guido G.

Abstract

The author investigates the poverty impacts of informal export barriers like transport costs, cumbersome customs practices, costly regulations, and bribes. He models these informal barriers as export taxes that distort the efficient allocation of resources. In low-income agricultural economies, this distortion lowers wages and household agricultural income, thereby leading to higher poverty. The author investigates the poverty impacts of improving export procedures in Moldova. This is a unique case study: poverty is widespread (half of the Moldovan population lives in poverty), the country is very open and relies on agricultural exports for growth, formal trade barriers are fairly liberalized, and informal export barriers are common and widespread. The author finds that improving export practices would benefit the average Moldovan household across the whole income distribution. For example, halving informal export barriers would cause poverty to decline from 48.3 percent of the population to between 43.3 and 45.5 percent, potentially lifting 100,000-180,000 individuals out of poverty.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 3354.

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Date of creation: 01 Jul 2004
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:3354

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Keywords: Economic Theory&Research; Labor Policies; Payment Systems&Infrastructure; Environmental Economics&Policies; Health Economics&Finance; Environmental Economics&Policies; Economic Theory&Research; Health Economics&Finance; TF054105-DONOR FUNDED OPERATION ADMINISTRATION FEE INCOME AND EXPENSE ACCOUNT; Markets and Market Access;

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References

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  1. Koujianou Goldberg, Pinelopi & Pavcnik, Nina, 2003. "The response of the informal sector to trade liberalization," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 463-496, December.
  2. Jed Friedman & James Levinsohn, 2002. "The Distributional Impacts of Indonesia's Financial Crisis on Household Welfare: A "Rapid Response" Methodology," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 16(3), pages 397-423, December.
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  6. Guido G. Porto, 2003. "Using survey data to assess the distributional effects of trade policy," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3137, The World Bank.
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  9. Edward E. Leamer, 1996. "In Search of Stolper-Samuelson Effects on U.S. Wages," NBER Working Papers 5427, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  11. Linda Goldberg & Joseph Tracy, 2001. "Exchange Rates and Wages," NBER Working Papers 8137, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Jorge Balat & Irene Brambilla & Guido Porto, 2007. "Realizing the Gains From Trade: Export Crops, Marketing Costs, and Poverty," NBER Working Papers 13395, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Luis Carvalho & Aurora A.C. Teixeira, 2011. "Where are the poor in International Economics?," FEP Working Papers 425, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
  3. Ekaterina Krivonos & Marcelo Olarreaga, 2009. "Sugar Prices, Labor Income, and Poverty in Brazil," JOURNAL OF LACEA ECONOMIA, LACEA - LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION.
  4. Cadot, Olivier & Dutoit, Laure & Olarreaga, Marcelo, 2005. "How Costly is it for Poor Farmers to Lift Themselves out of Subsistence?," CEPR Discussion Papers 5392, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  5. Sauer, Johannes & Gorton, Matthew & White, John, 2011. "Marketing, cooperatives and price heterogeneity: evidence from the CIS dairy sector," 2011 Annual Meeting, July 24-26, 2011, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 103722, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  6. Pinelopi K. Goldberg & Nina Pavcnik, 2004. "Trade, Inequality, and Poverty: What Do We Know? Evidence from Recent Trade Liberalization Episodes in Developing Countries," NBER Working Papers 10593, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Jorge F. Balat & Guido G. Porto, 2007. "Globalization and Complementary Policies: Poverty Impacts on Rural Zambia," NBER Chapters, in: Globalization and Poverty, pages 373-416 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Wim Naudé & Marianne Matthee, 2011. "The impact of transport costs on new venture internationalisation," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 9(1), pages 62-89, March.
  9. Lederman, Daniel & Porto, Guido, 2014. "The price is not always right : on the impacts of (commodity) prices on households (and countries)," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6858, The World Bank.
  10. Stephen Tokarick, 2006. "Does Import Protection Discourage Exports?," IMF Working Papers 06/20, International Monetary Fund.
  11. Guido G. Porto, 2003. "Using survey data to assess the distributional effects of trade policy," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3137, The World Bank.
  12. Cadot, Olivier & Dutoit, Laure & Olarreaga, Marcelo, 2006. "How costly is it for poor farmers to lift themselves out of poverty?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3881, The World Bank.
  13. Jorge F. Balat & Guido Porto, 2005. "Globalization and Complementary Policies: Poverty Impacts in Rural Zambia," NBER Working Papers 11175, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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